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Table 3 25 most prevalent comorbidities and symptoms in the overall HCV population stratified and compared by antiviral treatment status and control patients without HCV

From: The high comorbidity burden of the hepatitis C virus infected population in the United States

Prevalence
Rank Comorbidity CCS code Comorbidities
associated with HCV treatment and disease‡
No. of total HCV cases (n = 7411) % No. of HCV treated patients (n = 3469) % No. of HCV untreated patients (n = 3942) % No. of HCV uninfected controls (n = 7411) % Odds ratio (95%CI): treated vs untreated * Odds ratio (95% CI): HCV cases vs. controls
1 Liver disease, othera 9.8.2 C 2779 37.5 1451 41.8 1328 33.7 221 3.0 1.34 (1.21-1.47) 19.67 (16.57-23.36)
2 Connective tissue disease, otherb 13.8 A, D 2776 37.5 1200 34.6 1576 40.0 2050 27.7 0.81 (0.74-0.90) 1.59 (1.48-1.70)
3 Abdominal pain 17.1.7 C 2675 36.1 1212 34.9 1463 37.1 1029 13.9 0.90 (0.81-0.99) 3.55 (3.25-3.87)
4 Upper respiratory disease, and other 8.1.5 A 2640 35.6 1204 34.7 1436 36.4 2194 29.6 0.96 (0.87-1.05) 1.33 (1.24-1.43)
5 Lower respiratory disease, and other unspecifiedc 8.8.3 2494 33.7 1197 34.5 1297 32.9 1332 18.0 1.06(0.96-1.17) 2.39 (2.21-2.59)
6 Essential hypertension 7.1.1 E 2416 32.6 1099 31.7 1317 33.4 1914 25.8 0.93 (0.84-1.03) 1.42 (1.32-1.53)
7 Back problems, and otherd 13.3.3 C 2409 32.5 1046 30.2 13.63 34.6 1502 20.3 0.84 (0.76-0.92) 1.90 (1.76-2.05)
8 Non-traumatic joint disorders, othere 13.2.3 C 2172 29.3 877 25.3 1295 32.9 1484 20.0 0.71 (0.64-0.78) 1.66 (1.53-1.79)
9 Skin disorders, otherf 12.4 A 2125 28.7 998 28.8 1127 28.6 1649 22.3 1.06 (0.95-1.17) 1.40 (1.30-1.51)
10 Nonspecific chest pain 7.2.5 A, C 1960 26.5 859 24.8 1101 27.9 1154 15.6 0.84 (0.76-0.94) 1.98 (1.82-2.15)
11 Disorders of lipid metabolism 3.6 C 1920 25.9 813 23.4 1107 28.1 2384 32.2 0.80 (0.72-0.89) 0.73 (0.68-0.79)
12 Malaise and fatigue 17.1.8 A 1887 25.5 933 26.9 954 24.2 866 11.7 1.18 (1.07-1.32) 2.62 (2.39-2.87)
13 Gastrointestinal disorders, other and unspecifiedg 9.12.3 C 1807 24.4 836 24.1 971 24.6 708 9.6 0.93 (0.84-1.04) 3.11 (2.81-3.43)
14 Benign neoplasm, other and unspecifiedh 2.16.2 Unk 1798 24.3 833 24.0 965 24.5 1333 18.0 1.00 (0.90-1.12) 1.48 (1.36-1.61)
15 Anemia deficiency, other 4.1.3 A 1648 22.2 983 28.3 665 16.9 441 6.0 1.99 (1.77-2.23) 4.57 (4.06-5.14)
16 Esophageal disordersi 9.4.1 E 1518 20.5 674 19.4 844 21.4 709 9.6 0.85 (0.76-0.96) 2.47 (2.24-2.73)
17 Upper respiratory disease, otherj 8.9 A, BP 1441 19.4 650 18.7 791 20.1 1098 14.8 0.95 (0.85-1.07) 1.39 (1.27-1.51)
18 Allergic reactionsk 17.1.9 A 1104 14.9 616 17.8 488 12.4 714 9.6 1.60 (1.41-1.83) 1.64 (1.48-1.81)
19 Genitourinary symptoms and ill-defined conditionsl 10.1.8 Unk 1098 14.8 483 13.9 615 15.6 677 9.1 0.89 (0.78-1.01) 1.73 (1.56-1.92)
20 Substance-related mental disorders 5.2.2 E 1091 14.7 443 12.8 648 16.4 818 3.2 1.07 (0.94-1.22 1.39 (1.26-1.53)
21 Blindness and vision defects 6.7.4 A 1078 14.6 512 14.8 566 14.4 818 11.0 1.07 (0.94-1.22) 1.80 (1.62-2.01)
22 Depressive disorder 5.9.2 A, B, D 1028 13.9 489 14.1 539 13.7 312 4.2 1.06(0.92-1.21) 3.72 (3.25-4.27)
23 Diabetes mellitus without complication 3.2 B 1025 13.8 426 12.3 599 15.2 627 8.5 0.74 (0.65-0.85) 1.80 (1.62-2.01)
24 Viral infections, otherm 1.3.3 Unk 1019 13.8 447 12.9 572 14.5 663 8.9 0.87 (0.76-0.99) 1.63 (1.47-1.81)
25 Eye disorders, othern 6.7.6 A 1001 13.5 499 14.4 502 12.7 758 10.2 1.23 (1.08-1.41) 1.38 (1.25-1.53)
  1. CCS Clinical Classification Code
  2. *Odds ratios are adjusted for age, sex, and advanced liver disease status
  3. ‡ Comorbidities associated with HCV treatment: (A) conditions associated with inteferon alfa or ribavirin use and (B) concurrent disease for which therapy is contraindicated; and HCV disease: (C) symptoms of HCV disease, (D) extrahepatic manifestations associated with HCV infection, and (E) conditions associated with disease progression; Unk, unknown
  4. a Of the patients who had other liver diseases, they reported abnormal liver function (69.5%), elevated transaminase/lactate dehydrogenase (26.7%), abnormal serum enzyme levels (13.8%), ascites (10.7%), and hepatomegaly (9.0%)
  5. b Of the patients who had other connective tissue disease, they mainly reported pain in limb (38.7%), myalgia and myositis unspecified (18.8%), swelling of limb (12.5%), and spasm of muscle (9.7%)
  6. c Of the patients who had other and unspecified lower respiratory disease, they mainly reported coughs (48.5%), other respiratory abnormalities (35.6%), shortness of breath (34.1%), and other lung disease
  7. e Of the patients who had other non-traumatic joint disorders, they mainly reported joint pain in the leg (25.5%), shoulder (24.1%), ankle (15.9%), and pelvis (14.4%)
  8. f Of the patients who had other skin disorders, they mainly reported other nonspecified skin eruptions (22.3%), sebaceous cyst (14.3%), actinic keratosis (12.3%), and other seborrheic keratosis (10.8%)
  9. g Of the patients who had other unspecified gastrointestinal disorders, they mainly reported diarrhea (26.7%), splenomegaly (20.3%), irritable bowel syndrome (11.9%), and unspecified site of abdominal/pelvic swelling (10.6%)
  10. h Of the patients who had other unspecified benign neoplasm, they mainly reported benign neoplasm of the large bowel (39.2%), skin trunk (14.3%), and unspecified skin (11.5%)
  11. i Of the patients who had esophageal disorders, they mainly reported esophageal reflux (62.6%), reflux esophagitis (21.1%), esophagitis unsepcified (14.5%), and esophageal varices without bleeding (13.7%)
  12. j Of the patients who had other upper respiratory disease, they mainly reported unspecified allergic rhinitis (43.0%), rhinitis due to pollen (13.6%), chronic rhinitis (12.4%), nasal cavity/other sinus disorder (12.2%), epistaxis (11.1%), and deviated nasal septum (11.0%)
  13. k Of the patients who had allergic reactions, they mainly reported unspecified dermatitis (65.9%) and other atopic dermatitis (11.1%)
  14. l Of the patients who had genitourinary symptoms and ill-defined conditions, they mainly reported hematuria (32.0%), urinary frequency (20.1%), and dysuria (18.9%)
  15. m Of the patients who had other viral infections, they mainly reported unspecified viral infections (42.8%), unspecified viral warts (22.0%), and unspecified herpes simplex (11.4%)
  16. n Of the patients who had other eye disorders, they mainly reported unspecified tear film insufficiency (19.7%), other vitreous opacities (15.9%), and vitreous degeneration (9.5%)
  17. o Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be misclassified under lower respiratory disease which is a antiviral treatment contraindication [14]
  18. p Upper respiratory disease, comprising mainly of rhinitis, may reflect an under-diagnosis of thyorid disorders, which is known to be associated with HCV [15].