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Table 1 Characteristics of study patients

From: Factors associated with delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis in hospitalized patients in a high TB and HIV burden setting: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Total
n = 305
Group 1 (≤ 6 d)
n = 166
Group 2 (> 6 d)
n = 139
p value*
Time until diagnosis (days) 6 (2-12) 2 (1 - 4) 12 (9 - 19) -
Demographic characteristics 41.9 ± 17.4 40.3 ± 16.1 43.8 ± 18.7 0.079
Age, yr     
Age > 60 years 40 (13.1) 17 (10.2) 25 (18.0) 0.051
Male sex 108 (35.4) 61 (37.7) 47 (33.8) 0.594
White race 230 (75.4) 123 (74.1) 107 (77.0) 0.560
Current smokers 91 (35.4) 56 (41.5) 35 (28.7) 0.032
Alcoholism 89 (29.2) 46 (27.9) 43 (30.9) 0.560
Injection drug use 81 (26.6) 50 (30.3) 31 (22.3) 0.116
Forms of TB     
Isolated Pulmonary TB 110 (36.1) 77 (46.4) 33 (23.7) < 0.0001
Isolated Extra-pulmonary TB 143 (46.9) 53 (31.9) 90 (64.7) < 0.0001
Pulmonary + extra-pulmonary TB 52 (17.0) 36 (21.7) 16 (11.5) 0.019
Symptoms     
Cough 132 (43.3) 89 (53.6) 43 (30.9) < 0.0001
Night sweats 74 (24.3) 54 (32.5) 20 (14.4) < 0.0001
Fever 190 (62.3) 111(66.9) 79 (56.8) 0.072
Laboratory results     
Smear-negative sputum 93 (56.7) 45 (42.1) 48 (84.2) < 0.0001
Radiographic patterns     
Cavitary disease 33 (10.8) 28 (16.9) 5 (3.6) < 0.0001
Pleural effusion 58 (19.0) 24 (14.5) 34 (24.5) 0.027
Miliary pattern 37 (12.1) 29 (17.5) 8 (5.8) 0.002
Consolidation 52 (17.0) 31 (18.7) 21 (15.1) 0.409
Normal 42 (13.8) 14 (8.4) 28 (20.1) 0.003
Previous default from TB treatment 24 (7.9) 20 (12.0) 4 (2.9) 0.003
Comorbidities     
Presence of any comorbidity 224 (73.4) 130 (78.3) 94 (67.6) 0.035
HIV positive 191 (71.0) 117 (75.5) 74 (64.9) 0.059
Diabetes mellitus 19 (6.2) 3 (1.8) 16 (11.5) < 0.0001
Chronic renal failure 8 (2.6) 1 (0.6) 7 (5.0) 0.016
Mechanical ventilation 48 (16.3) 28 (17.4) 20 (15.0) 0.587
In-hospital mortality 50 (16.4) 29 (17.5) 21 (15.1) 0.579
Mortality after discharge 47 (18.4) 22 (16.1) 25 (21.2) 0.292
  1. Continuous variables (age) are presented as mean ± SD; other data are presented as n/N (%): number of cases with characteristic/total number of cases (percentage in the group), or median (interquartile range)
  2. * p for the comparison between groups 1 and 2