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Table 1 Host factors and urine LAM Status of 199 study participants

From: Lipoarabinomannan in urine during tuberculosis treatment: association with host and pathogen factors and mycobacteriuria

Host Factors Total n = 199 LAM Negative
n = 167 (83.9%)
LAM Positive*
n = 32 (16.1%)
p-value**
Median age years [IQR] 34 [28-43] 35 [30-40] 34 [28-44] 0.929†
Gender     0.904††
Male 110 92 (55.1) 18 (56.3)  
Female 89 75 (44.9) 14 (43.8)  
Patient TB category     0.968††
New TB case 125 105 (62.9) 20 (62.5)  
Re-treatment TB case 74 62 37.1) 12 (37.5)  
Site of disease     0.613‡
Pulmonary 168 141 (84.4) 27 (84.4)  
Extra-Pulmonary 18 16 (9.6) 2 (6.3)  
Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary 13 10 (6) 3 (9.4)  
Smear or culture positive     < 0.001‡
Positive 119 90 (53.9) 29 (90.6)  
Negative 79 76 (45.5) 3 (9.4)  
Not done 1 1 (0.6) 0 (0)  
HIV status     0.002‡
Positive 146 117 (70.1) 29 (90.6)  
Negative 52 50 (29.9) 2 (6.3)  
Unknown 1 0 (0) 1 (3.1)  
Median CD4 cells/μL. [IQR] a 132.5 [70-283] 156 [80-309] 95 [42-134] 0.006†
< 50 26 17 (14.5) 9 (31)  
50-99 28 22 (18.8) 6 (20.7)  
100-199 39 31 (26.5) 8 (27.6)  
≥ 200 53 47 (40.2) 6 (20.7)  
ART at start of TB treatment a     0.078††
Yes 33 30 (25.6) 3 (10.3)  
No 113 87 (74.4) 26 (89.7)  
  1. *LAM positive patients are defined as those who were LAM positive on day 1 or on two or more occasions during TB treatment. A LAM result was considered positive when the average sample LAM-ELISA optical density (OD) minus the negative control was greater than or equal to 0.1 and negative when the average sample OD minus the negative control was less than 0.1. **p-values indicate differences between LAM positive and LAM negative participants. p-values were calculated using Wilcoxon rank sum, chi-square††, and Fisher's exact test . aof the 146 HIV positive subjects