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Table 2 Univariate conditional logistic analysis of risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis among patients with meningitis and encephalitis

From: A case–control study of risk factors for HIV-negative children with cryptococcal meningitis in Shi Jiazhuang, China

Factors Case [no.(%)] (n = 13) Control [no.(%)] (n = 52) P value OR (95%CI)
Gender     
 Female 9 (21.4) 51 (55.4) Reference
 Male 14 (78.6) 41 (44.6) 0.190 1.81 (0.75-4.38)
Age, years     
 0-5 4 (17.4) 36 (39.1) Reference
 5-10 6 (26.1) 29 (31.5) 0.612 1.51 (0.31-7.35)
 10-15 9 (39.1) 21 (22.8) 0.033 4.36 (1.12-9.81)
 15-17 4 (17.4) 6 (6.5) 0.029 5.53 (1.19-25.79)
Geographic location     
Urban areas 6 (26.1) 32 (34.8) Reference
Rural areas 17 (73.9) 60 (65.2) 0.384 1.75 (0.54-5.66)
Time from illness onset to hospitalization (days)     
 1-10 2 (8.7) 35 (38.0) Reference
 10-20 3 (13.0) 24 (26.1) 0.398 2.22 (0.35-14.15)
 20-30 12 (52.2) 17 (18.5) 0.004 11.39 (2.20-59.02)
 ≥30 6 (26.1) 16 (17.4) 0.055 5.05 (0.96-26.84)
Contact with birds/droppings or saprophytes*     
 No 5 (21.7) 56 (60.9) Reference
 Yes 18 (78.3) 36 (39.1) 0.001 9.32 (2.54-34.23)
Underlying disease    
 No 17 (73.9) 80 (87.0) Reference
 Yes 6 (26.1) 12 (13.0) 0.160 2.05 (0.75-5.58)
  1. * Birds included pigeons, chicken, or parrots; saprophytes included soils, grassland, or rotten vegetables and fruits.
  2. † Underlying diseases included hepatitis B (1 case, 3 controls), renal disease (1 case, 2 controls), diabetes (1 case, 1 control), aplastic anemia (1 case, 1 control), tuberculosis and hepatitis B(1 case, 1 control), and hand-foot-mouth disease (1 case, 4 controls).