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Table 1 Characteristics of pediatric patients with cryptococcal meningitis

From: A case–control study of risk factors for HIV-negative children with cryptococcal meningitis in Shi Jiazhuang, China

Characteristic Patients without underlying diseases (%) (n = 17) Patients with underlying diseases* (%) (n = 6) Total [no.(%)] (n = 23) Pvalue
Gender     
 Male 11 (78.6) 3 (50.0) 14 (78.6) 0.643
Age, years     0.835
 0-5 3 (17.6) 1 (16.7) 4 (17.4)  
 5-10 5 (29.4) 1 (16.7) 6 (26.1)  
 10-15 7 (41.2) 2 (33.3) 9 (39.1)  
 15-17 2 (11.8) 2 (33.3) 4 (17.4)  
Geographic location     
 Rural area 13 (76.5) 4 (66.7) 17 (73.9) 0.632
Date of illness onset     0.444
 December-February 5(29.4) 0(0.0) 5 (21.7)  
 March-May 3(17.6) 1(16.7) 4 (17.4)  
 June-August 7(41.2) 3(50.0) 10 (43.5)  
 September-November 2(11.8) 2(33.3) 4 (17.4)  
Contact with birds/droppings or saprophytes 12 (70.6) 6 (100.0) 18 (78.3) 0.274
Time from illness onset to hospitalization (days)     0.093
 1-10 2 (11.8) 1 (16.7) 3(13.0)  
 10-20 2 (11.8) 1 (16.7) 3 (13.0)  
 20-30 11 (78.6) 1 (16.7) 12 (52.2)  
 ≥30 2 (11.8) 3 (66.7) 5 (21.7)  
Clinical symptoms and signs     
 Fever (≥39°C) 8 (47.1) 5 (83.3) 13 (56.5) 0.179
 Headache 13 (76.5) 5 (83.3) 18 (78.3) 1.000
 Nausea 9 (52.9) 5 (83.3) 14 (78.6) 0.340
 Altered mental status 10 (58.8) 3 (50.0) 13 (56.5) 1.000
 Vomiting 10 (58.8) 2 (33.3) 12 (52.2) 0.371
 Seizures 6 (35.3) 4 (66.7) 10 (43.5) 0.341
 Meningeal signs 5 (29.4) 3 (50.0) 8 (34.8) 0.621
 Neck stiffness 6 (35.3) 1 (16.7) 7 (30.4) 0.621
 Hearing damage 3 (17.6) 1 (16.7) 4 (17.4) 1.000
 Visual damage 3 (17.6) 0 (0.0) 3 (13.0) 0.539
 Bregmatic eminence 1 (5.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.3) 1.000
Laboratory findings     
 Blood leukocytosis (≥15 × 109/L) 15 (65.2) 5 (83.3) 20 (87.0) 1.000
 Decreased CSF glucose (<3.1 mmol/L) 16 (94.1) 4 (66.7) 20 (87.0) 0.155
 Pleocytosis (×106/L)     0.483
 <10 4 (23.5) 0 (0.0) 4 (17.4)  
 10-100 7 (41.2) 2 (33.3) 9 (39.1)  
 ≥100 6 (35.3) 4 (66.7) 10 (43.5)  
 Elevated CSF proteins (≥0.45 g/L) 10 (58.8) 5 (83.3) 15 (65.2) 0.369
Intracranial pressure(>250 mm H2O) 14(82.4) 3(50.0) 17 (73.9) 0.279
  1. *Underlying diseases included hepatitis B (1 case, 3 controls), renal disease (1 case, 2 controls), diabetes (1 case, 1 control), aplastic anemia (1 cases, 1 controls), tuberculosis and hepatitis B (1 case, 1 control), and hand-foot-mouth disease (1 case, 4 controls).
  2. †Birds included pigeons, chicken, or parrots; saprophytes included soils, grassland, or rotten vegetables and fruits.