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Table 4 Impact of infection by MDR pathogens, including MDR gram-negatives and pathogens from the ESKAPE group, in antibiotic therapy and hospital outcome

From: Additional risk factors for infection by multidrug-resistant pathogens in healthcare-associated infection: a large cohort study

Variables MDR, Non-MDR, Non- MDRvsMDR, MDR-GN Non-MDR-GN, Non-MDR-GNvsMDR-GN, ESKAPE pathogens, Non-ESKAPE pathogens, Non-ESKAPEvsESKAPE,
n (%) n (%) p Value n (%) n (%) p Value n (%) n (%) p value
Inadequate ATB therapy 57 (46) 19 (7) <0.001* 46 (44) 30 (10) <0.001* 25 (61) 51 (15) <0.001*
Hospital LOS, median (IQR) 10 (7–17) 10 (7–16) 0.944# 10 (7–15) 10 (7–17) 0.487# 11 (8–15) 10 (7–17) 0.280#
SAPS II, mean (SD) 32 (13) 30 (13) 0.171& 31 (13) 30 (13) 0.428& 32 (17) 30 (12) 0.373&
Hospital mortality 19 (15) 31 (12) 0.280* 13 (13) 37 (13) 0.928* 9 (22) 41 (12) 0.062*
  1. Comparison of inadequate antibiotic therapy, hospital length of stay, SAPS II and hospital mortality between the group of patients infected with MDR pathogens and those not infected, along with comparison of the group infected by MDR-GN with those not infected, and the group infected by ESKAPE pathogens and those not infected.
  2. ATB – antibiotherapy, CAI – community-acquired infection, LOS – length of stay, IQR – inter-quartil range, MDR – multi-drug resistant, MDR GN – multi-drug resistant gram negatives, ESKAPE - Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, MRSA, ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella species, Klebsiella pneumonia Carbapenamase-hydrolyzing and MDR Acinectobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species.
  3. *Pearson Qui-square Test; # Mann–Whitney test, &Students t-test.