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Table 2 Risk factors for MDR, MDR gram-negatives and ESKAPE group pathogens infection

From: Additional risk factors for infection by multidrug-resistant pathogens in healthcare-associated infection: a large cohort study

Variables Total, n (%) n=718 Microbiological documentation, n (%) n=439 MDR, n (%) n=123 Crude OR p-value MDR-GN, n (%) n=104 Crude OR p-value ESKAPE pathogens, n(%) n=41 Crude OR p-value
Age     1.6* <0.001   1.5* 0.009   1.3* 0.170
  ≤60 years 271 (38) 166 (38) 33 (27)    30 (28)    13 (32)   
  61-80 years 250 (35) 157 (36) 44 (36)    37 (36)    13 (32)   
  >80 years 197 (27) 116 (26) 46 (37)    37 (36)    15 (36)   
Male sex 344 (48) 203 (46) 56 (46) 1.1 0.656 45 (43) 0.9 0.542 21 (51) 1.2 0.503
Previous antibiotic therapy 137 (19) 94 (21) 38 (31) 1.9 0.009 30 (29) 1.7 0.033 20 (49) 4.2 <0.001
Hospitalization in the previous year (4 months - 1 year) 146 (20) 102 (23) 37 (30) 2.1 0.006 29 (28) 1.8 0.031 14 (34) 3.3 0.003
Immunosupression (not meeting criteria of HCAI) 113 (16) 81 (19) 25 (20) 1.1 0.685 24 (23) 1.5 0.116 10 (24) 1.5 0.306
Chronic hepatic disease 18 (3) 14(3) 4 (3) 0.9 0.818 3 (3) 0.9 0.829 2 (5) 1.7 0.522
Chronic heart failure 46 (6) 27 (6) 13 (11) 2.5 0.026 11 (11) 2.3 0.038 2 (5) 0.8 0.723
Chronic respiratory disease 52 (7) 30 (7) 13 (11) 2.2 0.056 11 (11) 1.9 0.093 4 (10) 1.6 0.439
Chronic haematologic disease 35 (5) 29 (7) 8 (7) 1.0 0.945 5 (5) 0.7 0.444 5 (12) 2.2 0.139
Cancer (not meeting criteria of HCAI) 10 (1) 6 (1) 2 (2) 1.5 0.666 2 (2) 1.6 0.578 0 (0)   
Diabetes 144 (20) 96 (22) 32 (26) 1.3 0.291 27 (26) 1.4 0.239 11 (27) 1.4 0.421
Atherosclerosis 168 (23) 105 (24) 40 (33) 1.8 0.017 32 (31) 1.6 0.069 13 (32) 1.5 0.222
Karnofsky index<70 227 (32) 149 (34) 57 (46) 1.8 0.006 44 (42) 1.6 0.046 22 (54) 2.5 0.006
  1. Association of demographic and clinical variables with infection by MDR, MDR gram negatives and ESKAPE pathogens among patients admitted from the community (with community-acquired or healthcare-associated infections), using logistic regression.
  2. *increase in the odds per category of age; MDR – multi-drug resistant; MDR-GN – multi-drug resistant gram negatives; OR – odds ratio; ESKAPE - Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, MRSA, ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella species, Klebsiella pneumonia Carbapenamase-hydrolyzing and MDR Acinectobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species.