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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, according to place of acquisition of infection

From: Additional risk factors for infection by multidrug-resistant pathogens in healthcare-associated infection: a large cohort study

Patients’ characteristics TOTAL (n = 1035) CAI and HCAI (n = 718) HAI (n = 317) p-value
Male sex, n (%) 506 (49) 344 (48) 162 (51) 0.343*
Age, mean (SD) 65 (20) 65 (20) 64 (19) 0.405&
SAPSII, mean (SD) 29 (13) 29 (12) 30 (13) 0.962&
Severity of infection, n (%)     0.922*
Localized infection without SIRS 281 (27) 195 (27) 86 (27)  
Sepsis 364 (35) 251 (35) 113 (36)  
Severe sepsis 296 (29) 209 (29) 87 (27)  
Septic shock 94 (9) 63 (9) 31 (10)  
Previous comorbidities, n (%) 671 (65) 460 (64) 211 (67) 0.438*
Chronic hepatic disease, n (%) 22 (2) 18 (3) 4 (1) 0.822$
Chronic renal disease, n (%) 149 (14) 94 (13) 55 (17) 0.072*
Chronic heart failure, n (%) 74 (7) 46 (6) 28 (9) 0.163*
Chronic respiratory disease, n (%) 66 (6) 52 (7) 14 (4) 0.086*
Hematologic disease, n (%) 60 (6) 35 (5) 25 (8) 0.056*
Cancer, n (%) 45 (4) 26 (4) 19 (6) 0.084*
Diabetes, n (%) 204 (20) 144 (20) 60 (19) 0.674*
Atherosclerotic disease, n (%) 242 (23) 168 (23) 74 (23) 0.985*
Immunosuppression, n (%) 221 (21) 137 (19) 84 (27) 0.007*
Karnofsky index<70, n (%) 319 (31) 227 (32) 92 (29) 0.405*
Hospitalization in the previous year, n (%) 413 (40) 239 (33) 174 (55) <0.001*
Previous antibiotic therapy, n (%) 367 (36) 137 (19) 230 (73) <0.001*
Hospital mortality, n (%) 138 (13) 79 (11) 59 (19) 0.001*
  1. CAI – community-acquired infection, HCAI – healthcare-associated infection, HAI – hospital-acquired infection, IQR – Inter-quartile range, SD – Standard deviation, SOFA – Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment, SIRS – Systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
  2. *Pearson Qui-square Test; $ Fisher exact test; & Independent samples t-test.