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Table 4 Association between carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus individually or any of the otopathogens at age 1- < 3 months and subsequent type B tympanogram adjusting for age and sex, presence of other bacteria, and environmental factors

From: Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

Adjusted factors Aboriginality Any otopathogena S. pneumoniae M. catarrhalis H. influenzae S. aureus
  OR (95%CI)b OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
Sex and Age only Aboriginal 2.21 (0.91-5.42) 1.16 (0.55-2.17) 1.60 (0.74-3.48) 4.58 (1.9810.59) 0.61 (0.27-1.39)
Non-Aboriginal 1.36 (0.84-2.22) 1.59 (0.87-2.91) 1.42 (0.86-2.34) 0.97 (0.32–2.97) 0.92 (0.57-1.48)
Presence of other bacteria Aboriginal 2.07 (0.82-5.22) 0.67 (0.33-1.38) 1.63 (0.79-3.36) 5.51 (2.41-12.58) 0.51 (0.24-1.09)
Non-Aboriginal 1.36 (0.83-2.21) 0.86 (0.29-2.58) 1.28 (0.73-2.26) 1.48 (0.75-2.93) 0.97 (0.60-1.55)
Environmental factors c Aboriginal 1.56 (0.51-4.74) 0.99 (0.43-2.27) 0.68 (0.23-1.98) 4.31 (1.64-11.32) 0.61 (0.25-1.54)
Non-Aboriginal 1.12 (0.66-1.88) 1.33 (0.75-2.37) 1.16 (0.66-2.05) 0.90 (0.27-3.02) 0.90 (0.52-1.55)
All confounders Aboriginal 1.56 (0.52-4.68) 0.66 (0.32-1.36) 0.99 (0.33-2.93) 5.35 (1.97-14.87) 0.45 (0.18-1.13)
Non-Aboriginal 1.11 (0.60-1.87) 1.31 (0.70-2.43) 1.09 (0.60-2.00) 0.83 (0.24-2.90) 0.92 (0.54-1.58)
  1. All associations adjusted for sex, age, age2 and where tympanometry was conducted (field or clinic).
  2. a Any otopathogen includes one or more of S. pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.
  3. b Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval comparing the odds of having a type B tympanograms between those who carried the respective organisms at age 1- < 3 months and those who did not.
  4. c Environmental factors are: passive smoking, crowding, other children living in the house and also exclusive breast-feeding at 6–8 weeks.