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Table 3 Association between carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus individually or any of the otopathogens at age 1- < 3 months and subsequent diagnosis of otitis media adjusting for age and sex, presence of other bacteria, and environmental factors

From: Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

Adjusted factors Aboriginality Any otopathogena S. pneumoniae M. catarrhalis H. influenzae S. aureus
  OR (95%CI)b OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
Sex and Age only Aboriginal 3.86 (1.61-9.24) 1.39 (0.64-3.01) 1.97 (0.89-4.39) 5.32 (2.12-13.35) 0.64 (0.26-1.56)
Non-Aboriginal 1.47 (0.80-2.71) 1.12 (0.50-2.47) 2.57 (1.35-4.91) 1.1 (0.36-3.42) 1.02 (0.58-1.77)
Presence of other bacteria Aboriginal 3.68 (1.51-8.96) 0.86 (0.39-1.93) 1.72 (0.74-3.96) 5.32 (1.95-14.49) 0.6 (0.25-1.47)
Non-Aboriginal 1.48 (0.80-2.72) 0.77 (0.32-1.88) 2.81 (1.40-5.61) 0.96 (0.33-2.83 ) 1.06 (0.61-1.86)
Environmental factors c Aboriginal 2.54 (0.93-6.93) 1.14 (0.49-2.65) 0.81 (0.29-2.27) 3.66 (1.31-10.25) 0.54 (0.22-1.33)
Non-Aboriginal 1.41 (0.78-2.55) 1.07 (0.51-2.28) 2.42 (1.31-4.48) 0.87 (0.32-2.39) 1.06 (0.58-1.93)
All confounders Aboriginal 2.44 (0.88-6.78) 0.84 (0.32-2.17) 1.02 (0.34-3.10) 3.71 (1.22-11.23) 0.52 (0.20-1.33)
Non-Aboriginal 1.42 (0.78-2.56) 0.81 (0.33-2.00) 2.63 (1.32-5.23) 0.80 (0.30-2.09) 1.05 (0.58-1.91)
  1. All associations adjusted for sex, age and age2.
  2. a Any otopathogen includes one or more of S. pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.
  3. b Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval comparing the odds of diagnosis of OM between those who carried the respective organisms at age 1- < 3 months and those who did not.
  4. c Environmental factors are: passive smoking, crowding, other children living in the house and also exclusive breast-feeding at 6–8 weeks.