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Table 5 Characteristics of culture positive patients with HAP and VAP with regard to the adequacy of empirical antibiotic treatment

From: Inadequate treatment of ventilator-associated and hospital-acquired pneumonia: Risk factors and impact on outcomes

Characteristics   HAP (n = 94)    VAP (n = 117)  
  Adequate treatment n = 43 (%) Inadequate treatment n = 51 (%) p Adequate treatment n = 37 (%) Inadequate treatment n = 80 (%) p
Age (years) 60.67 ± 16.04 65.14 ± 13.75 0.167 63.59 ± 16.65 63.85 ± 17.07 0.907
Sex (male) 32(74.4) 37 (72.5) 1.000 24 (64.9) 45 (56.3) 0.497
Surgical unit 9 (20.9) 8 (15.7) 0.697 21 (56.8) 25 (31.3) 0.015
Underlying diseases       
 Diabetes mellitus 5 (11.6) 8 (15.7) 0.789 5 (13.5) 11 (13.8) 1.000
 COPD 13 ( 30.2) 10 (19.6) 0.341 11 (29.7) 17 (21.3) 0.443
 Chronic renal failure 5 (11.6) 4 (7.8) 0.727 0 (0) 3 (3.8) 0.551
 Congestive heart failure 4 (9.3) 9 (17.6) 0.386 6 (16.2) 13 (16.3) 1.000
 Cerebrovascular disease 1 (2.3) 9 (17.6) 0.019 3 (8.1) 15 (18.8) 0.227
 Malignancy 6 (14.0) 9 (17.6) 0.838 6 (16.2) 11 (13.8) 0.944
Central venous catheterization 16 (37.2) 22 (43.1) 0.710 30 (81.1) 58 (72.5) 0.442
Urinary catheterization 33 (76.7) 37 (72.5) 0.820 37 (100) 78 (97.5) 1.000
Late-onset pneumonia 34 (79.1) 46 (90.2) 0.223 34 (91.9) 72 (90) 1.000
Acquisition of other site infection 12 (27.9) 11 (21.6) 0.637 11 (29.7) 42 (52.5) 0.036
Previous antibiotic usage 20 (46.5) 23 (45.1) 1.000 11 (29.7) 36 (45.0) 0.173
MDR bacteria 29 (67.4) 38 (74.5) 0.599 32 (86.5) 60 (75) 0.243
Polymicrobial etiology 1 (2.3) 8 (15.7) 0.036 2 (5.4) 6 (7.5) 1.000
Length of stay before HAP 7.6 ± 4.3 9.18 ± 5.8 0.194 13.89 ± 11.56 14.88 ± 10.34 0.313
APACHE II score 12.7 ± 5.83 14.92 ± 5.83 0.031 16.08 ± 6.94 16.69 ± 6.72 0.654
Exitus 16 (37.2) 24 (47.1) 0.452 27 (73) 53 (66.3) 0.608