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Table 4 Antimicrobial agents used in patients with HAP and VAP

From: Inadequate treatment of ventilator-associated and hospital-acquired pneumonia: Risk factors and impact on outcomes

Empiric antibiotic   HAP (n = 218)    VAP (n = 130)  
  Adequate (n = 128) Inadequate (n = 90) p Adequate (n = 44) Inadequate (n = 86) p
Carbapenems 31 (24.2) 16 (17.8) 0.004 20 (45.5) 18 (20.9) <0.001
Third generation cefalosporine 31 (24.2) 27 (30.0)   4 (9.1) 20 (23.3)  
β-lactam + β- lactamase inhibitor 35 (27.3) 21 (23.3)   14 (31.8) 26 (30.2)  
Quinolone 21 (16.4) 16 (17.8)   0 10 (11.6)  
β-lactam in combination with quinolone 1 (0.8) 9 (10.0)   0 9 (10.5)  
Aminoglycoside in combination with carbapenem or β-lactam 9 (7.0) 1 (1.1)   6 (13.6) 3 (3.5)