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Table 1 Characteristics of 218 patients with HAP with regard to the adequacy of empirical antibiotic treatment

From: Inadequate treatment of ventilator-associated and hospital-acquired pneumonia: Risk factors and impact on outcomes

Characteristics Adequate treatment n = 128 Inadequate treatment n = 90 p
Age (years) 61.84 ± 14.66 64.44 ± 13.49 0.189
Sex (male) 84 (65.6) 58 (64.4) 0.857
Surgical unit 24 (68.6) 11 (31.4) 0.269
Underlying diseases    
 Diabetes mellitus 26 (20.3) 14 (15.6) 0.474
 COPD 32 (25.0) 19 (21.1) 0.613
 Chronic renal failure 14 (10.9) 10 (11.1) 1.000
 Congestive heart failure 15 (11.7) 16 (17.8) 0.287
 Cerebrovascular disease 7 (5.5) 10 (11.1) 0.203
 Malignancy 24 (18.8) 22 (24.4) 0.398
Central venous catheterization 37 (28.9) 35 (38.9) 0.123
Urinary catheterization 88 (68.8) 66 (73.3) 0.464
Late-onset pneumonia 78 (60.9) 72 (80.0) 0.003
Acquisition of other site infection 21 (16.4) 20 (22.2) 0.365
Previous antibiotic usage 42 (32.8) 34 (37.8) 0.449
Culture proven pneumonia 43 (33.6) 51 (56.7) 0.001
MDR bacteria 29 (22.7) 38 (42.2) 0.002
Polymicrobial etiology 1 (0.8) 8 (8.9) 0.004
Length of stay before HAP 7.09 ± 5.07 8.52 ± 5.26 0.003
APACHE II score 12.68 ± 5.79 14.63 ± 6.59 0.024