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Figure 1 | BMC Infectious Diseases

Figure 1

From: TNF-α promoter polymorphism: a factor contributing to the different immunological and clinical phenotypes in Japanese encephalitis

Figure 1

Map of TNF-α promoter and TNF-&#945 gene on chromosome 6. Animal studies have pointed towards the association of particular single and/or multiple nucleotide changes in the viral genome with altered virulence but the degree of severity and disease outcome in JE do not correlate with virus genotypes [79]. Thus, the concept of the host genetic makeup towards disease modulation has been postulated. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a central mediator of immune response, in both serum and CSF samples in patients with JE have been associated with poor prognosis [10].

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