Proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α induced in EV71 infected MDMs. MDMs were infected with or without EV71 (live or UV-inactivated) at MOI of 5. Culture supernatants were harvested at 12-h and 24-h after infection to measure the indicated cytokines by CBA as described in Methods section. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM from eight independent experiments performed in triplicates. (*, P < 0.05 and **, P < 0.01).