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Table 2 Correlation between lumbar spine, femoral neck DXA T-scores and the studied parameters in the HIV-infected patients

From: Dairy calcium intake and lifestyle risk factors for bone loss in hiv-infected and uninfected mediterranean subjects

  Lumbar spine DXA T-score
n = 112
P < Femoral neck DXA T-score
n = 112
P <
DEMOGRAPHIC AND LIFESTYLE CHARACTERISTICS
Age a -0.20 0.05 -0.19 0.05
 Female sex b 0.05 ns 0.07 ns
 BMI (kg/m2) a 0.07 ns 0.11 ns
BMI score b,1 0.14 ns 0.20 0.05
 Smoking status b,2 -0.01 ns 0.09 ns
 Free time physical activity b 0.14 ns 0.06 ns
 Heavy workersb 0.02 ns 0.04 ns
 Italian espresso caffeine intake b,3 -0.04 ns -0.05 ns
 Alcoholb -0.03 ns 0.02 ns
 Diabetesb -0.14 ns -0.02 ns
 Postmenopauseb -0.17 ns -0.17 ns
 Fractureb -0.05 ns 0.17 ns
CALCIUM INTAKE
 Daily calcium intake (mg/day)a 0.09 ns 0.05 ns
 Dairy intake (times/week) a 0.09 ns 0.05 ns
 Daily milk intake (ml/day)a 0.07 ns 0.08 ns
 Parmesan intakeb 0.08 ns 0.15 ns
Yogurt intake (ml/week) b 0.23 0.04 0.11 ns
 Dairy quartile intake (times /week)b,4 0.05 ns 0.04 ns
BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS     
 Calcium (mg/dL)a 0.12 ns 0.08 ns
 Phosphorus (mg/dL)a 0.09 ns 0.13 ns
 Parathyroid hormone (pg/mL)a -0.16 ns -0.13 ns
 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (ng/mL)a -0.05 ns -0.08 ns
Bone alkaline phosphatase (IU/L) a -0.34 0.002 -0.32 0.005
CHARACTERISTICS OF HIV INFECTION
Drug addiction b -0.19 0.05 -0.25 0.02
 CD4+ T-cell count (cells/μL)a 0.09 ns 0.12 ns
Nadir CD4+ <200 (cells/μL) b -0.22 0.05 -0.23 0.04
 Undetectable HIV-RNAb 0.07 ns 0.09 ns
Time since HIV diagnosis a -0.17 ns -0.25 0.01
Score of ART exposure b,5 -0.23 0.002 -0.34 0.0001
Score of PI exposure b,5 -0.20 0.05 -0.32 0.001
 Duration tenofovir exposure > 1 yearb -0.12 ns -0.11 ns
 NNRTI exposureb -0.01 ns -0.01 ns
HCV infection b -0.30 0.001 -0.27 0.005
 Duration tenofovir exposure > 1 yearb -0.12 ns -0.11 ns
 NNRTI exposureb -0.01 ns -0.01 ns
HCV infection b -0.30 0.001 -0.27 0.005
  1. a: Pearson’s correlation test; b: Spearman’s rank correlation test.
  2. 1 BMI score = 1: < 25; 2: ≥ 25–29; 3: ≥ 30 (kg/m2).
  3. 2 Smoking habits were graded 1: non- smokers, 2 smokers, 3 former smokers.
  4. 3 Italian espresso caffeine intake = > 4 cups per day.
  5. 4 Dairy quartile intake (times /week) = 1: ≤8, 2: 9–10, 3: 11–14, and 4: ≥15.
  6. 5 ART and PI score = 0: no exposure; 1: < 5; 2: 5–9; 3: ≥ 10 years.