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Table 3 Cytokine levels in serum and in cell supernatants before and after doxycycline and placebo treatment

From: Doxycycline-mediated effects on persistent symptoms and systemic cytokine responses post-neuroborreliosis: a randomized, prospective, cross-over study

Cytokine Antigen Doxycycline median pg/ml (Interquartile range) Placebo median pg/ml (Interquartile range) Detectable (%)
   Before After Before After  
Serum       
IL-1β   0.43 (0.13-1.50) 0.60 (0.13-1.10) 0.52 (0.13-0.70) 0.60 (0.13-0.84) 68
IL-6   0.19 (0.19-1.60) 0.19 (0.19-2.70) 0.19 (0.19-2.70) 0.19 (0.19-3.20) 43
IL-8   8.15 (6.0-12.9) 9.78 (7.70-14.3) 10.6 (7.40-14.9) 10.1 (7.90-13.7) 100
GM-CSF   0.75 (0.75-9.85) 0.75 (0.75-9.10) 0.75 (0.75-10.2) 0.75 (0.75-11.5) 40
IL-10   0.15 (0.15-1.80) 0.15 (0.15-1.72) 0.15 (0.15-1.30) 0.15 (0.15-1.97) 45
Supernatants       
IL-1β OF 267 (147–416) 276 (178–353) 258 (160–372) 257 (212–325) 100
  LPS 373 (297–578) 336 (273–459) 384 (306–464) 376 (272–417) 100
IL-6 OF 8495 (5577–11552) 10018 (7283–11436) 9017 (7893–12936) 10549 (6765–11870) 97
  LPS 7457 (5522–9344) 7043 (6173–9401) 7339 (5640–9010) 7129 (6164–8376) 100
IL-8 OF 234726 (182996–353519) 256238 (224077–323425) 264450 (187637–377221) 254926 (343734) 100
  LPS 170005 (84896–191690) 158091 (116470–210940) 159121 (119796–175857) 153546 (203419) 100
  unstim. 949 (425–3337) 887 (412–2657) 966 (580–2637) 728 (443–1324) 100
TNF OF 49.4 (41.8-72.4) 51.8 (26.9-210) 91.2 (66.7-141) 69.3 (25.8-152) 77
  LPS 45.0 (23.8-61.3) 45.4 (31.7-56.4) 36.7 (27.1-57.5) 37.1 (26.4-51.9) 77
IL-10 OF 50.6 (41.8-84.7) 59.3 (48.4-84.7) 64.4 (46.3-100) 67.3 (47.0-86.3) 82
  LPS 177 (130–272) 184 (114–259) 201 (154–255) 181 (119–280) 98
  1. The table shows median values for spontaneous cytokine levels in serum and antigen-stimulated (and unstimulated IL-8 levels) cytokine levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants, before and after doxycycline and placebo treatment from all 15 included patients. IL, interleukin; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; OF, outer surface–enriched fraction of B. garinii strain Ip90; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; unstim., unstimulated.