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Table 3 Results of a univariate Generalized Estimating Equation Model Predicting smear positivity according to sex

From: Impact of sputum gross appearance and volume on smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study

  Male Female
Odd ratio (95% Cl) P-value Odd ratio (95% Cl) P-value
Age     
 40-59 years (versus < 40 years) 2.76 (1.24-6.14) 0.013 1.11 (0.32-3.89) 0.867
 ≥ 60 years (versus < 40 years) 1.03 (0.37-2.82) 0.961 2.45 (0.73-8.21) 0.146
BMI     
 ≥23 (versus <23) 1.70 (0.71-4.10) 0.235 1.16 (0.39-3.42) 0.787
Respiratory symptoms     
 any symptom 3.73 (1.57-8.87) 0.003 3.85 (1.44-10.28) 0.007
 cough 3.02 (1.42-6.42) 0.004 5.31 (2.03-13.92) 0.001
 sputum 3.72 (1.78-7.77) <0.001 1.61 (0.56-4.63) 0.376
 hemoptysis 2.26 (0.38-13.33) 0.369 7.96 (1.91-33.21) 0.004
 duration (<3 weeks versus ≥3 weeks) 3.71 (1.77-7.78) 0.001 4.93 (1.83-13.30) 0.002
General symptoms 2.52 (1.19-5.37) 0.016 1.74 (0.44-6.94) 0.431
Smoking     
 current smoking 1.38 (0.68-2.81) 0.374 0.53 (0.14-2.09) 0.374
 previous smoking 1.37 (0.63-2.98) 0.430 0.58 (0.14-2.40) 0.451
 1-10 pack-years (versus 0 pack-years ) 1.85 (0.65-5.25) 0.250 0.58 (0.14-2,49) 0.464
 ≥ 10 pack-years (versus 0 pack-years ) 2.93 (1.22-7.07) 0.016 0.65 (0.18-2.36) 0.507
Radiographic extent     
 moderate or far-advanced (versus minimal) 4.42 (2.07-9.45) <0.001 1.23 (0.37-4.10) 0.732
 cavity 5.27 (2.24-11.47) <0.001 2.02 (0.342-11.91) 0.438
Gross appearance of sputum specimens     
 sputum (versus saliva ) 1.70 (1.08-2.67) 0.021 1.51 (0.70-3.29) 0.297
 purulent, bloody (versus saliva, mucoid) 2.04 (1.33-3.12) 0.001 2.96 (1.46-6.01) 0.003
Volume of sputum specimens     
 ≥1 ml (<1 ml versus ≥1 ml) 1.18 (0.74-1.88) 0.482 2.81 (1.43-5.51) 0.003
 ≥2 ml (<2 ml versus ≥2 ml) 1.10 (0.87-1.39) 0.433 2.27 (0.99-5.17) 0.052
 ≥3 ml (<3 ml versus ≥3 ml) 1.12 (0.87-1.44) 0.396 1.74 (0.57-5.31) 0.331
 ≥4 ml (<4 ml versus ≥4 ml) 1.09 (0.90-1.32) 0.372 3.89 (1.89-7.98) <0.001
 ≥5 ml (<5 ml versus ≥5 ml) 1.01 (0.87-1.16) 0.933 3.31 (0.84-13.06) 0.088
  1. Note. ─ CI confidence interval.