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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of Haemophilus bacteremia according to 30-day CFR

From: Treatment of Haemophilus bacteremia with benzylpenicillin is associated with increased (30-day) mortality

  Median (interquartile range) or percentage Non-survivors Survivors OR P-value
   n = 23 n = 82   
Gender (female) 47.8% (11/23) 41.5% (34/82) 1.29 (0.51-3.28) 0.64
Age   69 (60–83) 69 (50–77) 1.03 (1.00-1.05) 0.07
  0-64 years 34.8% (8/23) 46.3% (38/82) 1 (reference)  
  65-80 years 26.1% (6/23) 35.4% (29/82) 0.98 (0.31-3.15) 0.98
  >80 years 39.1% (9/23) 18.3% (15/82) 2.85 (0.93-8.77) 0.07
Haemophilus species     
  Nontypeable 82.6% (19/23) 69.5% (57/82) 1 (reference)  
  Typeable 8.7% (2/23) 18.3% (15/82) 0.40 (0.08-1.91) 0.25
  Others 8.7% (2/23) 12.2% (10/82) 0.60 (0.12-2.99) 0.53
Polymicrobial bacteremia 21.7% (5/23) 3.7% (3/82) 7.32 (1.60-33.5) 0.01
Charlson index     
  Low (0) 30.4% (7/23) 45.1% (37/82) 1 (reference)  
  Medium (1–2) 52.2% (12/23) 39.0% (32/82) 1.98 (0.70-5.64) 0.20
  High (>2) 17.4% (4/23) 15.9% (13/82) 1.63 (0.41-6.47) 0.49
Smoking 50.0% (11/22) 46.8% (37/79) 1.14 (0.44-2.92) 0.81
Alcohol abuse 45.0% (9/20) 16.9% (13/77) 4.03 (1.40-11.67) 0.01
Immunosuppression 13.6% (3/22) 24.1% (20/83) 0.50 (0.13-1.86) 0.39
Focus of infection     
  Lung 52.2% (12/23) 46.3% (38/82) 1.29 (0.50-3.19) 0.64
  Upper respiratory tract 0.0% (0/23) 7.3% (6/82) 0.25 (0.01-4.62) 0.34
  Meningitis 8.7% (2/23) 2.4% (2/82) 3.81 (0.51-28.67) 0.21
  Endocarditis 0.0% (0/23) 3.7% (3/82) 0.48 (0.02-9.70) >0.99
  Hepato-billiary 4.3% (1/23) 9.8% (8/82) 0.42 (0.05-3.55) 0.68
  Miscellaneous 4.3% (1/23) 12.2% (10/82) 0.33 (0.04-2.70) 0.45
  Unknown 30.4% (7/23) 19.5% (16/82) 1.81 (0.64-5.12) 0.27
Acquisition of bacteremia     
  Community-acquired 43.5% (10/23) 62.2% (51/82) 1 (reference)  
  Healthcare-related 26.1% (6/23) 30.5% (25/82) 1.22 (0.40-3.75) 0.72
  Hospital-acquired 30.4% (7/23) 7.3% (6/82) 5.95 (1.65-21.48) <0.01
Hospital specialty     
  Medical 56.5% (13/23) 69.5% (57/82) 1 (reference)  
  Surgical 21.7% (5/23) 15.9% (13/82) 1.69 (0.51-5.57) 0.39
  Intensive care unit 17.4% (4/23) 2.4% (2/82) 8.78 (1.45-53.1) 0.02
  Othersa 4.3% (1/23) 12.2% (10/82) 0.44 (0.05-3.73) 0.45
Altered mental state 65.2% (15/23) 18.5% (15/81) 8.25 (2.96-23.00) <0.01
Temp. <38 40.9% (9/22) 20.0% (16/80) 2.77 (1.01-7.61) <0.05
Mean blood pressure (mmHg) 97 (86–113) (n = 22) 90 (81–100) (n = 76) 1.03 (1.00-1.06) 0.15
Heart rate 100 (84–112) (n = 22) 95 (80–108) (n = 76) 1.01 (0.99-1.03) 0.46
B-hgb (mmol/L) 7.3 (6.3-9.0) (n = 21) 7.3 (6.5-8.4) (n = 69) 1.08 (0.75-1.55) 0.7
B-WBC (109 cells/L) 13.3 (11.6-17.6) (n = 23) 14.2 (8.3-20) (n = 75) 0.99 (0.93-1.05) 0.61
P-creatinine (μmol/L) 91 (61–141) (n = 21) 82 (61–120) (n = 64) 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.97
Abnormal liver parametersb 58.8% (10/17) 54.7% (29/53) 1.18 (0.39-3.58) >0.99
P-CRP (mg/L) 175 (96–270) (n = 21) 175 (97–257) (n = 76) 1.00 (1.00-1.01) 0.97
Transfer to ICU 30.4% (7/23) 13.6% (11/81) 2.78 (0.93-8.30) 0.11
Shock 22.7% (5/22) 3.75% (3/80) 7.55 (1.64-34.68) 0.01
Mechanical ventilation 26.1% (6/23) 8.6% (7/81) 3.73 (1.11-12.53) 0.04
Hemodialysis 4.5% (1/22) 4.9% (4/81) 0.92 (0.10-8.64) >0.99
Inadequate empiric antibiotic therapy 8.7% (2/23) 12.2% (10/82) 0.69 (0.14-3.38) >0.99
Definitive antibiotic therapy     
Benzylpenicillin 45.5% (10/22) 19.5% (16/82) 1 (reference)  
Aminopenicillin 0% (0/22) 14.6% (12/82) Not determinedc <0.02 d
Cefuroxime 27.2% (6/22) 53.7% (44/82) 0.22 (0.07-0.70) 0.01
Broadspectrum antibiotics 27.2% (6/22) 12.2% (10/82) 0.96 (0.27-3.47) 0.95
  1. a) Paediatric, gynaecological and ear nose and throat departments.
  2. b) Liver parameters were considered abnormal, if P-ALAT > 45 U/L, P-ASAT > 35 U/L, P-Albumin < 550 μM, P-Amylase > 120 U/L, P-Bilirubin > 22 μM or P-alkaline phosphatase > 105 U/L.
  3. c) OR could not be determined, because CFR = 0 for aminopenicillins.
  4. d) P-value was determined by Fisher Exact test for benzylpenicillin vs. aminopenicillins.