Skip to main content

Table 1 Clinical characteristics of Haemophilus bacteremia according to definitive antibiotic therapy a

From: Treatment of Haemophilus bacteremia with benzylpenicillin is associated with increased (30-day) mortality

  Definitive antibiotic therapy
Median (interquartile range) or percentage Benzylpenicillin Cefuroxime Aminopenicillins Broadspectrum antibiotics
   n = 26 n = 50 n = 12 n = 16
Combination therapy with gentamicin or ciprofloxacin 34.6% (9/26) 22.0% (11/50) 25.0% (3/12) 43.8% (7/16)
Gender (female) 46.2% (12/26) 40.0% (20/50) 58.3% (7/12) 37.5% (6/16)
Age   73 (58–84) (n = 26) 69 (52–76) (n = 50) 62 (26–82) (n = 12) 68 (56–79) (n = 16)
Charlson index     
  Low (0) 57.7% (15/26) 36.0% (18/50) 58.3% (7/12) 25.0% (4/16)
  Medium (1–2) 30.8% (8/26) 48.0% (24/50) 25.0% (3/12) 56.2% (9/16)
  High (>2) 11.5% (3/26) 16.0% (8/50) 16.7% (2/12) 18.8% (3/16)
Smoking 45.8% (11/24) 49.0% (24/49) 45.5% (5/11) 43.8% (7/16)
Alcohol abuse 26.1% (6/23) 21.7% (10/46) 9.1% (1/11) 25.0% (4/16)
Immunosuppression 3.8% (1/26) d f 30.0% (15/50) 16.7% (2/12) 31.2% (5/16)
Haemophilus species     
  Non-typeable 69.2% (18/26) 76.0% (38/50) 75.0% (9/12) 62.5% (10/16)
  Typeable 15.4% (4/26) 14.0% (7/50) 16.7% (2/12) 25.0% (4/16)
  Other types 15.4% (4/26) 14.0% (7/50) 8.3% (1/12) 12.5% (2/16)
Polymicrobial bacteremia 19.2% (5/26) d 4.0% (2/50) 0% (0/12) 6.2% (1/16)
Acquisition of bacteremia     
  Community-acquired 65.4% (17/26) 56.0% (28/50) g 91.7% (11/12) i 31.2% (5/16)
  Healthcare-related 23.1% (6/26) 34.0% (17/50) 8.3% (1/12) 43.8% (7/16)
  Hospital-acquired 11.5% (3/26) 10.0% (5/50) 0% (0/12) 25.0% (4/16)
Focus of infection     
  Lung 38.5% (10/26) 52.0% (26/50) 58.3% (7/12) 43.8% (7/16)
  Upper respiratory tract 3.8% (1/26) 6.0% (3/50) 16.7% (2/12) 0.0% (0/16)
  Meningitis 0% (0/26) f 0% (0/50) h 0% (0/12) 25.0% (4/16)
  Endocarditis 3.8% (1/26) 2.0% (1/50) 0% (0/12) 6.2% (1/16)
  Hepato-billiary 11.5% (3/26) 8.0% (4/50) 0% (0/12) 6.2% (1/16)
  Miscellaneous 11.5% (3/26) 12.0% (6/50) 16.7% (2/12) 0.0% (0/16)
  Unknown 30.8% (8/26) 20.0% (10/50) 8.3% (1/12) 18.8% (3/16)
Hospital specialty     
  Medical department 69.2% (18/26) 70.0% (35/50) 41.7% (5/12) 75.0% (12/16)
  Surgical department 26.9% (7/26) 16.0% (8/50) 8.3% (1/12) 12.5% (2/16)
  Intensive care unit 0.0% (0/26) 4.0% (2/50) 16.7% (2/12) 12.5% (2/16)
  Other departments b 3.8% (1/26) 10.0% (5/50) 33.3% (4/12) 0.0% (0/16)
Altered mental state 26.9% (7/26) 24.0% (12/50) 25.0% (3/12) 53.3% (8/15)
Temp. <38 °C 30.8% (8/26) 26.0% (13/50) 9.1% (1/11) 14.3% (2/14)
Mean blood pressure (mmHg) 90 (82–102) (n = 25) 91 (84–100) (n = 48) 92 (71–109) (n = 10) 94 (73–103) (n = 15)
Heart rate 100 (79–108) (n = 25) 95 (80–108) (n = 47) 105 (89–136) (n = 10) 94 (84–106) (n =15)
B-hgb (mmol/L) 6.8 (6.4-8.3) (n = 23) 7.3 (6.3-8.3) (n = 43) 7.9 (6.9-8.7) (n = 9) 7.7 (6.0-9.0) (n = 14)
B-WBC (109 cells/L) 13.3 (10.5-16.6) (n = 23) 15.5 (9.7-20.5) (n = 49) 10.6 (7.5-17.7) (n = 10) 8.2 (2.1-18.8) (n = 15)
P-creatinine (μmol/L) 79 (58–137) (n =19) 90 (62–133) (n = 43) 69 (56–99) (n = 9) 105 (71–240) (n = 14)
Abnormal liver parameters c 72.2% (13/18) 54.1% (20/37) 40.0% (2/5) 40.0% (4/10)
P-CRP (mg/L) 145 (45–214) (n = 24) d 184 (105–262) (n = 48) 186 (55–241) (n = 10) 173 (119–271) (n = 14)
Transfer to ICU 11.5% (3/26) 12.2% (6/49) h 25.0% (3/12) 37.5% (6/16)
Septic shock 11.5% (3/26) 0% (0/48) h 8.3% (1/12) 26.7% (4/15)
Mechanical ventilation 7.7% (2/26) f 8.2% (4/49) h 8.3% (1/12) 37.5% (6/16)
Hemodialysis 3.8% (1/26) 2.1% (1/48) h 0% (0/12) 18.8% (3/16)
Death 38.5% (10/26) d e 12.0% (6/50) h 0% (0/12) i 37.5% (6/16)
  1. a) 1 pt with inoperable mouth cancer died without initiation of antibiotic therapy.
  2. b) Paediatric, gynaecological and ear nose and throat departments.
  3. c) Liver parameters were considered abnormal, if P-ALAT > 45 U/L, P-ASAT > 35 U/L, P-Albumin < 550 μM, P-Amylase > 120 U/L, P-Bilirubin > 22 μM or P-alkaline phosphatase > 105 U/L.
  4. Significant difference (Fisher exact test or Mann Whitney test, P < 0.05): benzylpenicillin vs. cefuroxime (d), benzylpenicillin vs. /aminopenicillins (e), benzylpenicillin vs. broadspectrum antibiotics (f), cefuroxime vs. aminopenicillins (g) cefuroxime vs. broadspectrum antibiotics (h). aminopenicillins vs. broadspectrum antibiotics (i).