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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for laboratory-confirmed influenza outcomes and demographic and clinical variables

From: Determination of clinical and demographic predictors of laboratory-confirmed influenza with subtype analysis

   Subjects ages Subjects ages Subjects ages Subjects ages
  Total study population 3–5 years 6–17 years 18–49 years 50–80 years
Variable (n = 789) (n = 65) (n = 197) (n = 326) (n = 201)
Outcome variables n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Influenza diagnosis      
Positive 220 (27.9) 12 (18.5) 65 (33.0) 92 (28.2) 51 (25.4)
Negative 569 (72.1) 53 (81.5) 132 (67.0) 234 (71.8) 150 (74.6)
Influenza type      
A 152 (69.1) 7 (58.3) 53 (81.5) 63 (68.5) 29 (56.9)
B 67 (30.5) 5 (41.7) 11 (16.9) 29 (31.5) 22 (43.1)
AB 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Influenza A subtypea      
H1 51 (44.0) 3 (42.9) 19 (44.2) 18 (38.3) 11 (57.9)
H3 46 (39.7) 1 (14.3) 21 (48.8) 17 (36.2) 7 (36.8)
Unsubtypeable 19 (16.4) 3 (42.9) 3 (7.0) 12 (25.5) 1 (5.3)
Continuous variables Value (error)b Value (error)b Value (error)b Value (error)b Value (error)b
Age (years) 31.2 (19.4) 4.0 (0.8) 11.5 (3.6) 32.0 (9.9) 56.8 (5.3)
Symptom duration (days) 4.0 (1–90) 4.0 (1–30) 3.0 (1–60) 5.0 (1–60) 5.0 (1–90)
Temperature (°C) 36.9 (35.6–40.3) 36.8 (35.9–39.5) 37.1 (35.6–40.3) 36.9 (35.9–39.6) 36.8 (35.6–39.3)
Smoking history (pack-years) 0.0 (0–117.5)c ––d ––d 0.0 (0–51)c 0.0 (0–117.5)
Vaccine to Onset Time (Days)e 80 (0–365) 57 (0–198) 74 (6–348) 89 (3–342) 85.4 (8–365)
Categorical variables n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Enrollment site      
Outpatient clinic 1 284 (36.0) 6 (9.2) 61 (31.0) 137 (42.0) 80 (39.8)
Outpatient clinic 2 203 (25.7) 15 (23.1) 55 (27.9) 63 (19.3) 70 (34.8)
Emergency room 246 (31.2) 24 (36.9) 47 (23.9) 124 (38.0) 51 (25.4)
Pediatric clinic 56 (7.1) 20 (30.8) 34 (17.3) 2 (0.6) 0 (0.0)
Sex      
Female 494 (62.6) 30 (46.2) 87 (44.2) 270 (82.8) 107 (53.2)
Male 295 (37.4) 35 (53.8) 110 (55.8) 56 (17.2) 94 (46.8)
Acute onset      
≤3 days 273 (34.6) 30 (46.2) 99 (50.3) 100 (30.7) 44 (21.9)
>3 days 516 (65.4) 35 (53.8) 98 (49.8) 226 (69.3) 157 (78.1)
Fever      
>38.0°C 126 (16.0) 11 (16.9) 48 (24.4) 43 (13.2) 24 (11.9)
≤38.0°C 663 (84.0) 54 (83.1) 149 (75.6) 283 (86.8) 177 (88.1)
Cough      
Yes 736 (93.3) 63 (96.9) 176 (89.3) 299 (91.7) 198 (98.5)
No 53 (6.7) 2 (3.1) 21 (10.7) 27 (8.3) 3 (1.5)
Sore throat      
Yes 630 (79.8) 33 (50.8) 170 (86.3) 278 (85.3) 149 (74.1)
No 159 (20.2) 32 (49.2) 27 (13.7) 48 (14.7) 52 (25.9)
Shortness of breathe      
Yes 346 (43.9) 20 (30.8) 73 (37.2) 166 (50.9) 87 (43.3)
No 442 (56.0) 45 (69.2) 123 (62.8) 160 (49.1) 114 (56.7)
Nasal congestion      
Yes 650 (82.4) 51 (78.5) 155 (78.7) 271 (83.1) 173 (86.1)
No 139 (17.6) 14 (21.5) 42 (21.3) 55 (16.9) 28 (13.9)
Headache      
Yes 619 (78.5) 31 (47.7) 134 (68.0) 286 (87.7) 168 (83.6)
No 170 (21.5) 34 (52.3) 63 (32.8) 40 (12.3) 33 (16.4)
Conjunctivitise      
Yes 44 (5.6) 6 (9.2) 4 (2.0) 16 (4.9) 18 (9.0)
No 744 (94.3) 59 (90.8) 193 (98.0) 309 (94.8) 183 (91.0)
Body achese      
Yes 581 (73.6) 27 (41.5) 99 (50.2) 289 (88.7) 166 (82.6)
No 207 (26.2) 37 (56.9) 98 (49.8) 37 (11.4) 35 (17.4)
Nausea/vomiting      
Yes 347 (44.0) 19 (29.2) 107 (54.3) 155 (47.5) 66 (32.8)
No 442 (56.0) 46 (70.8) 90 (45.7) 171 (52.5) 135 (67.2)
Smoker      
Yes 157 (19.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 88 (27.0) 69 (34.3)
No 632 (80.1) 65 (100.0) 197 (100. 0) 238 (73.0) 132 (65.7)
Vaccinated      
Yes 217 (27.5) 17 (26.2) 27 (13.7) 85 (26.1) 88 (43.8)
No 572 (72.5) 48 (73.9) 170 (86.3) 241 (73.9) 113 (56.2)
  1. NOTE. Percentages are rounded, thus may not add up to 100%. aDenominator is subjects with at least one specimen positive by culture for influenza A. bContinuous variable values reported as “mean (standard deviation)” if symmetric variable, or “median (low end–high end of range)” if nonsymmetric. cTwo subjects in age group reported history of smoking but datum for number of pack-years is missing. dIn this age group no subjects reported pack-years >0. eMedian (range) reported for subset of subjects who reported any influenza vaccine within the 12 months prior to presentation. fDatum missing for 1 subject in study population.