Levels of Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the stool of
-infected patients, treated with butyrate or placebo. Stool specimens were collected on indicated time points from Intervention (n = 39) and Placebo (n = 37) groups of patients. Concentrations of (A) IL-8 and (B) IL-1β in stool extracts were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data are represented as mean ± SEM. Two-way repeated measure ANOVA was performed to determine significant interaction between butyrate and placebo therapy on different days, and when interaction was significant the Holm-Sidak post hoc comparison procedure was used to compare the effects of butyrate therapy on outcome measures. Significance: p≤ 0.05. Levels of IL-8 and IL-1β diminished significantly from day 1 to days 4 and 7 (≤ 0.001) in both groups. Diminution of IL-8 in the Intervention group was significantly higher than the Placebo group (p = 0.048). Attenuation of IL-1β in the Intervention group was higher but not significant compared with the Placebo group (p = 0.078). IL-8: interleukin-8; IL-1β: interleukin-1β.