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Table 1 Clinical and demographic details of HRV-positive and negative children

From: Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

  HRV-positive
n = 128 (58.2%)
HRV-negative
n = 92 (41.8%)
OR (95% CI) ρ-value
Age (months) (median & IQR) 13.3(6.0-28.2) 11.7(6.7-24.6) 1.00(0.99-1.02) 0.68
Male n (%) 76 (59) 52 (41) 0.89(0.52-1.53) 0.67
Clinical symptoms n (%)     
   Cough 114 (89) 83 (90) 1.13(0.47-2.74) 0.78
   Wheeze 108 (84) 79 (86) 1.13(0.53-2.40) 0.76
   Breathing difficulty 68 (53) 43 (47) 0.77(0.45-1.32) 0.35
   Rhinorrhea 86 (67) 59 (64) 0.87(0.50-1.53) 0.64
   Night waking 75 (59) 52 (57) 0.92(0.53-1.58) 0.76
   Fever >37.5C 43 (34) 46 (50) 1.98(1.14-3.42) 0.02
   Diarrhoea 17 (13) 10 (11) 0.80(0.35-1.83) 0.60
   Vomiting 51 (40) 23 (25) 0.50(0.28-0.91) 0.02
Duration of symptoms (days) (median & IQR) 3 (2-7) 4 (2-7) 0.99(0.96-1.02) 0.58
Previous episodes of wheezing (median & IQR) 3 (2-6) 3 (2-10) 0.98 (0.94-1.02) 0.27
   n = 0 (%) 29 (22.7) 21 (23)   
   n = <3 (%) 40 (31.2) 22 (24) 0.98 (0.35-2.79) 0.97
   n = ≥3 (%) 59 (46.1) 49 (53) 0.99 (0.94-1.03 0.57
Hospital admission n (%)     
   General ward 45(35.2) 26(28.3) 1.38(0.77-2.46) 0.28
   ICU 3(2.3) 4(4.4) 1.90(0.41-8.67) 0.41
Risk factors n (%)     
   Premature birth (< 38 weeks gestation) 16(13) 19(21) 0.55(0.37-1.14) 0.10
   Smoker in house 54(45) 4 (50) 1.37(0.80-2.35) 0.25
   Relative with asthma 45(35) 2 (28) 1.38(0.34-1.11) 0.11
  1. HRV = human rhinovirus; IQR = interquartile range; OR = odds ratio; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval; ρ-value = probability value