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Table 2 Pathogen Distribution in Patients with HCAP and CAPa

From: Healthcare-associated pneumonia among hospitalized patients in a Korean tertiary hospital

Microbes HCAP (n= 231) CAP (n= 296) P-value
Pathogen identified 79 (34.2) 83 (29.1) 0.206
Gram-positive pathogens 34 (14.7) 54 (18.2) 0.282
   MRSA 9 (3.9) 6 (2.0)  
   MSSA 4 (1.7) 9 (3.0)  
   Streptococcus pneumoniae 11 (4.8) 33 (11.1)  
   Streptococcus other 4 (1.7) 3 (1.0)  
   Enterococcus species 0 (0) 1 (0.3)  
   Others b 6 (2.6) 3 (1.0)  
Gram-negative pathogens 46 (19.9) 28 (9.5) 0.001
   Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10 (4.3) 5 (1.7)  
   Escherichia coli 1 (0.4) 0 (0)  
   Haemophilus influenzae 2 (0.9) 3 (1.0)  
   Klebsiella pneumoniae 23 (10.0) 13 (4.4)  
ESBL producing c 9/23 (39.1) 3/13 (23.1)  
   Enterobacter species 4 (1.7) 1 (0.3)  
   Acinetobacter baumannii 1 (0.4) 0 (0)  
   Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 1 (0.4) 1 (0.3)  
   Others d 4 (1.7) 5 (1.7)  
Anaerobes e 1 (0.4) 0 (0)  
Atypical pathogens f 0 (0) 3 (1.0)  
Fungal pathogensg 1 (0.4) 1 (0.3)  
PDR pathogens 29 (12.6) 14 (4.7) 0.001
  1. a Data are presented as numbers (percentages) unless otherwise indicated.
  2. b Coagulase-negative Staphylococci species
  3. c Number of patients/total number of patients in whom Klebsiella pneumonia was identified (percentages)
  4. d Moraxella catarrhalis (1 in HCAP and 3 in CAP), Serratia marcescens (2 in HCAP and 2 in CAP), Citrobacter freundii (1 in HCAP)
  5. e Bacteroides fragilis
  6. f Mycoplasma pneumonia (3 in CAP)
  7. g Aspergillus species
  8. HCAP healthcare-associated pneumonia
  9. CAP community-acquired pneumonia
  10. MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  11. MSSA methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus
  12. ESBL extended-spectrum β-lactamase
  13. PDR potentially drug-resistant