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Table 1 Characteristics of 128 patients with sustained viral suppression after 4 years of antiretroviral therapy at the Infectious Diseases Institute research cohort∏

From: High T-cell immune activation and immune exhaustion among individuals with suboptimal CD4 recovery after 4 years of antiretroviral therapy in an African cohort

  Sub-optimal CD4 reconstitution
(Cases)
N = 34
Optimal CD4 reconstitution
(Controls)
N = 64
Super-optimal CD4 reconstitution
(Controls)
N = 30
P value*
At baseline     
Age (yrs) [median (IQR)] 36 (31-42) 33 (30-38) 35 (31-43) 0.509
Female gender [n (%)] 21 (62) 49 (77) 26 (87) 0.066
BMI [median (IQR)] 20 (19-23) 20 (19-23) 20 (19-23) 0.935
CD4 cells/μl [median (IQR)] 111 (62-151) 105 (40-176) 115 (97-185) 0.447
   < 100 cells/μl [n(%)] 20 (59) 35 (55) 15 (30) 0.779
ART regimen     
   D4T-3TC-NVP/EFZ [n (%)] 17 (50) 43 (67) 22 (73)  
   ZDV-3TC-NVP/EFZ [n (%)] 17 (50) 21 (33) 8 (27) 0.116
Hemoglobin [ median (IQR)] 12 (11-13) 11 (10-13) 11 (10-13) 0.473
After 4 years of ART     
CD4 cells/μl [median (IQR)] 220 (183-248) 407 (334-456) 985 (438-1290) < 0.001
   < 350 cells/μl [n(%)] 34 (100) 19 (30) 0 (0) < 0.001
BMI [median (IQR)] 21 (19-25) 22 (20-24) 22 (20-24) 0.062
Hemoglobin [ median (IQR)] 14 (12-15) 13 (12-14) 13 (12-14) 0.969
Hepatitis B positive [n] 1 5 1 0.033
ART regimen     
   D4T-3TC-NVP/EFZ [n (%)] 13 (38) 41 (64) 17 (57)  
   ZDV-3TC-NVP/EFZ [n (%)] 21 (62) 18 (28) 13 (43)  
   TDF-3TC-NVP/EFZ [n (%)] 0 (0) 5 (8) 0 (0) 0.008
  1. *Chi square test was used for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis test was used for the continuous variables.
  2. ∏All patients initiated antiretroviral therapy at CD4 200 cells/μl and below. The magnitude of CD4 increase from the baseline counts was grouped into 4 quartiles; 'Suboptimal CD4 reconstitution' includes patients that lie in the lowest quartile, 'Optimal CD4 reconstitution' includes a sample of patients that lie in the two middle quartiles and 'Super-optimal CD4 reconstitution' includes patients that lie in the highest quartile of CD4 increase.