Effect of targeting the Tim-3 and PD-L1 signaling pathways on upper genital tract inflammatory pathology examined microscopically. (A) After the gross appearance observation, the same tissues were subjected to histological section analyses under microscope (after H&E staining). Representative H&E stained section images covering either uterine horn (panels a, c, e & g) or oviduct (b, d, f & h) regions were presented from each group (a-d from control group while e to h from anti-Tim-3 + PD-L1 treatment group). Each section was scored for both lumenal dilatation (DI, panels a, b, e & f) and inflammatory infiltration (IN, panels c, d g & h). Lumenal dilation was marked with a white line with arrowheads at both ends and while infiltrates marked with white arrows. The semi-quantitation results were presented in (B). Dilation (left plot) and inflammation (right plot) scores (derived from 5 different sections) assigned to individual mice were used to calculate the means and standard errors for each group as shown along the Y-axis. The mouse and tissue groups were indicated either inside the plots (open bar for control while solid bar for antibody treatment groups) or along the X-axis. The scores were compared between different groups using ANOVA followed by the two-tailed Student t test. The p values with statistic significance were indicated accordingly.