Effect of targeting the Tim-3 and PD-1 signaling pathways on the development of urogenital tract gross pathology. Groups of control and anti-Tim-3 + PD-L1 treatment mice were infected with C. muridarum as described in Figure1 legend. Sixty days after infection, mice were sacrificed for harvesting genital tissues and the pathology of the mouse genital tissues was evaluated under both naked eyes for gross appearance. The left column in each group (a-j from control and k to t from antibody treatment group) displayed the overall appearance of the entire upper genital tract (UGT), whereas the right two narrow columns were amplified images of the oviduct/ovary portion from both left (for example, marked with a1) and right (a2) sides. Swollen oviducts from either side were marked according to the severity as followings: No hydrosalpinx is assigned a score of zero (0); Hydrosalpinx is only visible after amplification (1); Hydrosalpinx is clearly visible with naked eye but the size is smaller than that of ovary (2); The size of hydrosalpinx is similar to that of ovary (3) or larger than ovary (4). * indicates a swollen oviduct with a severity score of 4 (panel g1) but the bubble was accidentally broken during isolation. The incidence and severity of hydrosalpinx were summarized in Table 1.