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Table 1 Correlates of HR-HPV in HIV-negative and HIV-positive high-risk women with normal cytology, Kigali, Rwanda

From: The epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in HIV-positive and HIV-negative high-risk women in Kigali, Rwanda

  HIV negative women1 HIV positive women2
  HR HPV positive Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) HR HPV positive Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR (95% CI)
  n/N N = 349 N = 318 n/N N = 126 N = 126
Demographical characteristics at baseline
Age       
   < 30 yrs 99/281 1 1 42/75 1 1
   ≥ 30 yrs 12/68 0.39 (0.20-0.78) 0.62 (0.29-1.33) 22/51 0.60 (0.29-1.23) 0.71 (0.34-1.50)
Marital status3     4   
   Never married 98/264 1 1 44/82 1  
   Widowed/Divorced 13/80 0.33 (0.17-0.63) 0.42 (0.20-0.85) 20/44 0.72 (0.34-1.51)  
Education level       
   No formal schooling 29/72 1   12/30 1  
   Primary school (partial/completed) 76/246 0.66 (0.38-1.14)   46/81 1.97 (0.83-4.69)  
   Secondary school (partial/completed) 6/31 0.36 (0.13-1.00)   6/15 1.00 (0.28-3.59)  
Sexual and reproductive characteristics at baseline
Age at sexual debut       
   < 15 yrs 18/43 1   9/16 1  
   15-19 yrs 79/249 0.65 (0.33-1.26)   49/92 0.89 (0.30-2.60)  
   ≥ 20 yrs 13/53 0.45 (0.19-1.10)   6/18 0.39 (0.09-1.66)  
Parity       
   < 3 pregnancies 80/224 1   40/70 1  
   ≥ 3 pregnancies 31/125 0.59 (0.36-0.97)   24/55 0.58 (0.28-1.20)  
Genital infections at baseline
Neisseria gonorrhoeae by PCR       
   negative 90/314 1 1   not done  
   Positive 21/35 3.73 (1.79-7.79) 3.19 (1.38-7.38)   not done  
Chlamydia trachomatis by PCR       
   negative 100/332 1 1   not done  
   Positive 11/17 4.25 (.51-12.0) 4.38 (1.30-14.77)   not done  
Trichomonas vaginalis by InPouch culture       
   negative 92/289 1    not done  
   Positive 19/60 0.99 (0.55-1.81)    not done  
HSV-2 serology4       
   negative 40/142 1   7/12 1  
   Positive 59/181 1.23 (0.76-2.00)   53/108 0.69 (0.20-2.32)  
Positive syphilis serology5       
   negative 98/322 1    not done  
   Positive 12/26 1.96 (0.87-4.41)    not done  
BV by Nugent score       
   Normal (score 0-3) 39/140 1    not done  
   Intermediate flora (score 4-6) 10/48 0.68 (0.31-1.50)    not done  
   BV (score 7-10) 54/146 1.52 (0.92-2.51)    not done  
Current sexual and reproductive characteristics
No of clients in the past week       
   0 1/15 0.14 (0.02-1.16)   18/44 1  
   1-4 35/103 1   29/54 1.68 (0.74-3.79)  
   5-9 33/107 0.70 (0.36-1.37)   7/14 1.44 (0.43-4.90)  
   ≥ 10 41/121 1.13 (0.64-2.00)   10/14 3.61 (0.92-14.14)  
No of vaginal sex acts in past month       
   0 6/8 7.96 (1.49-42.55)   6/20 1  
   1-24 49/179 1   47/83 3.05 (1.03-8.97)  
   ≥ 25 56/161 1.41 (0.89-2.25)   11/23 2.14 (0.59-7.81)  
Condom use during vaginal sex in the past month       
   Always 44/153 1   18/40 1  
   Never/sometimes 61/186 1.22 (0.76-1.93)   40/66 1.88 (0.84-4.22)  
   No sex 6/8 7.43 (1.38-40.0)   6/20 0.52 (0.16-1.68)  
Hormonal contraceptive use6       
   No or < 6 months 80/283 1    NA  
   > 6 months 29/63 2.16 (1.23-3.81)    NA  
Current genital co-infections
Neisseria gonorrhoeae by PCR       
   negative 97/315 1    not done  
   Positive 11/25 1.77 (0.77-4.04)    not done  
Chlamydia trachomatis by PCR       
   negative 105/327 1    not done  
   Positive 6/17 1.15 (0.41-3.21)    not done  
Trichomonas vaginalis by InPouch culture       
   negative 91/292 1    not done  
   Positive 19/54 1.20 (0.65-2.11)    not done  
HSV-2 serology7       
   negative 36/139 1   5/9 1  
   Positive 70/197 1.58 (0.97-2.55)   59/117 0.81 (0.21-3.20)  
HSV-2 serology4       
   Negative (Enr-M6) 33/132 1 1   NA  
   Positive at enrollment 59/181 1.45 (0.88-2.40) 1.78 (1.01-3.12)   NA  
   Incident at M6 7/10 7.00 (1.62-30.21) 6.69 (1.41-31.38)   NA  
Positive syphilis serology       
   negative 100/321 1    not done  
   Positive 9/24 1.33 (0.56-3.14)    not done  
Concurrent LR HPV infection       
   negative 51/236 1 1 22/57 1 1
   Positive 60/113 4.11 (2.47-6.83) 3.77 (02.17-6.54) 42/69 2.48 (1.18-5.19) 2.31 (1.11-4-81)
BV by Nugent score       
   Normal (score 0-3) 57/149 1   16/35   
   Intermediate flora (score 4-6) 17/51 1.51 (0.76-3.03)   7/18   
   BV (score 7-10) 50/126 1.99 (1.18-3.36)   39/68   
Current (Year 2) HIV-related indicators
CD4 count (copies/mL)- use of cART       
   > 350 - no cART   NA   33/60 1  
   > 350 - cART   NA   13/34 0.51 (0.21-1.21)  
   ≤ 350 - no cART   NA   7/15 0.72 (0.23-2.25)  
   ≤ 350 - cART   NA   10/15 1.64 (0.49-5.44)  
  1. 1 HR-HPV in HIV-negative women at Month 6 with normal cytology. 16 women excluded because of abnormal cytology results; 2 HR-HPV in HIV = positive women at Year 2. 14 women excluded because of abnormal cytology results; 3 only 4 women were married; 4 intermediate HSV-2 results are excluded (HIV negative n = 27; HIV-positive n = 10); 5 RPR and TPHA positive; 6 oral contraceptives, injectables or implants. Reference group includes women using condoms for family planning; 7 intermediate HSV-2 results are excluded (HIV negative n = 13; HIV positive n = 3)
  2. Notes: Abbreviations: HR-HPV = high-risk human papillomavirus infection; LR-HPV = low-risk HPV; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; FSW = female sex worker; HSV-2 = herpes simplex virus type 2; BV = bacterial vaginosis; N.A = not applicable. Sample sizes for different questions may vary slightly from the total N based on missing responses.
  3. Classification of HR-HPV is independent of LR-HPV status. In HIV-negative HR-HPV positive women 54% had LR-HPV coinfection. In HIV-negative HR-HPV negative women 23% had LR-HPV coinfection. In HIV-positive HR-HPV positive women 65% had LR-HPV coinfection. In HIV-positive HR-HPV negative women 44% had LR-HPV coinfection.