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Table 1 Travel characteristics and risk factors for travelers' diarrhea in a cohort of 390 Dutch travelers.

From: Inconvenience due to travelers' diarrhea: a prospective follow-up study

Characteristic All n = 390 Classic TD n = 144 No TD n = 246 Univariate OR [95% CI] p-value Multivariate OR [95% CI] Relative contribution of each characteristic to the model's R2 (%)
Gender, female 1 253 (65) 98 (68) 155 (63) 1.25 [0.81-1.93] 0.31   
Age      < 0.001   18.6
   18-34 years 217 (56) 102 (71) 115 (47) 1.0   1.0  
   ≥ 35 years 173 (44) 42 (29) 131 (53) 0.36 [0.23-0.56]   0.38 [0.23-0.65]  
Use of an antacid 2 24 (6) 14 (10) 10 (4) 2.54 [1.10-5.88] 0.03 2.95 [1.14-7.60] 6.8
Born in the tropics 3 19 (5) 5 (3) 14 (6) 0.60 [0.21-1.69] 0.33   
Traveled to the tropics in the preceding 5 years 4 251 (64) 91 (63) 160 (65) 0.92 [0.60-1.42] 0.71   
Mean travel duration - days (SE) 22.9 (0.65) 25.6 (1.2) 21.4 (0.7) 1.03 [1.01-1.04] 0.002 1.02 [0.99-1.04] 2.7
Travel destination, Human Development Index      0.02   10.6
   High 79 (20) 18 (13) 61 (25) 1.0   1.0  
   Medium 219 (56) 90 (63) 129 (54) 2.36 [1.31-4.27] 0.004 2.29 [1.22-4.33]  
   Low 92 (24) 36 (25) 56 (23) 2.18 [1.11-4.27] 0.02 2.51 [1.19-5.33]  
Main travel purpose 5        
   Holiday 236 (61) 89 (62) 147 (60) 1.09 [0.72-1.66] 0.69   
   Visit friends/relatives 55 (14) 13 (9) 42 (17) 0.48 [0.25-0.93] 0.03 0.56 [0.27-1.19] 3.3
   Business/professional 32 (8) 5 (4) 27 (11) 0.30 [0.11-0.81] 0.02 0.31 [0.11-0.88] 7.6
   Study 51 (13) 29 (20) 22 (9) 2.57 [1.41-4.67] 0.002 1.16 [0.56-2.40] 0.2
   Volunteer work 16 (4) 8 (6) 8 (3) 1.75 [0.64-4.77] 0.27   
Type of travel 6        
   Self-arranged, not backpacking 170 (44) 56 (39) 114 (46) 0.74 [0.49-1.12] 0.15 1.17 [0.68-2.01] 0.4
   Backpacking 85 (22) 44 (31) 41 (17) 2.20 [1.35-3.58] 0.002 1.89 [0.96-3.70] 4.5
   Organized group travel 108 (28) 37 (26) 71 (29) 0.85 [0.54-1.36] 0.50   
   Other 27 (7) 7 (5) 20 (8) 0.58 [0.24-1.40] 0.23   
Type of accommodation 7        
   Luxury hotel only 98 (25) 43 (30) 55 (22) 1.48 [0.93-2.36] 0.10 2.94 [1.64-5.29] 18.2
   Budget hotel only 95 (24) 34 (24) 61 (25) 0.94 [0.58-1.52] 0.79   
   Camping (tent/camper) 26 (7) 9 (6) 17 (7) 0.90 [0.39-2.07] 0.80   
   Holiday home 15 (4) 5 (4) 10 (4) 0.85 [0.28-2.53] 0.77   
   Stayed with friends or relatives 12 (3) 3 (2) 9 (4) 0.56 [0.15-2.10] 0.39   
   Stayed with locals 13 (3) 8 (6) 5 (2) 2.84 [0.91-8.84] 0.07 2.91 [0.80-10.55] 3.4
   Combination of the above 131 (34) 42 (29) 89 (36) 0.73 [0.47-1.13] 0.16   
Diarrheal episode 2 months prior to departure*      0.003   
   No 195/251 (78) 61/91 (67) 134/160 (84) 1.0    
   Yes 56/251 (22) 30/91 (33) 26/160 (16) 2.54 [1.38-4.65]    
Subjective susceptibility for travelers' diarrhea*      0.12   
   Never 104/251 (41) 33/91 (36) 71/160 (44) 1.0    
   Sometimes 121/251 (48) 44/91 (48) 77/160 (48) 1.23 [0.71-2.14] 0.47   
   Often/Always 26/251(10) 14/91 (15) 12/160 (8) 2.51 [1.05-6.02] 0.04   
  1. Data are presented as n (%), unless otherwise stated. OR: odds ratio; SE: standard error of the mean; CI: confidence interval. P-values based on χ2-tests for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables. Variables with p < 0.2 were included in the multivariate logistic regression model. Reference category: 1male gender, 2no use of an antacid, 3born in The Netherlands, 4not having traveled to the tropics in the preceding 5 years, 5not the specified travel purpose, 6not the specified type of travel, 7not having stayed in the specified type of accommodation. Not included in the multivariate model because it is not a uniform category. *Not included in the multivariate logistic regression model because subjects who had not traveled to the tropics in the past 5 years had missing values for these variables. Model: constant = 0.19, Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.22, Hosmer and Lemeshow test for goodness of fit p = 0.4.