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Table 1 Risk factors for pneumococcal disease in HIV patients

From: The persisting burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV patients: an observational cohort study

Risk Factor   IPD Pneumococcal Pneumonia All Pneumococcal Disease
  n n (%) AOR (95% CI) n (%) AOR (95% CI) n (%) AOR (95% CI)
Gender        
Female 418 10 (2.4) 2.2 (1.0-4.9) 10 (2.4) 3.4 (1.5-7.9) 16 (3.8) 2.6 (1.3-4.9)
Male 1528 22 (1.4) 1 18 (1.2) 1 34 (2.2) 1
Age        
≥61 58 3 (5.2) 9.7 (1.7-53.8) 4 (6.9) 45.4 (4.6-445.0) 6 (10.3) 22.5 (5.0-100.7)
46-60 476 11 (2.3) 2.5 (0.7-9.5) 4 (0.8) 2.9 (0.3-26.7) 12 (2.5) 2.8 (0.8-10.5)
31-45 1070 15 (1.4) 1.5 (0.4-5.5) 19 (1.8) 6.4 (0.8-49.2) 29 (2.7) 3.2 (0.9-10.8)
≤30 342 3 (0.9) 1 1 (0.3) 1 3 (0.9) 1
Race        
Aboriginal 233 13 (5.6) 3.0 (1.3-6.8) 7 (3.0) 1.5 (0.6-3.8) 16 (0.7) 2.1 (1.1-4.3)
Black 329 1 (0.3) 0.5 (0.1-3.9) 1 (0.3) 0.4 (0.0-3.7) 2 (0.6) 0.5 (0.1-2.3)
White 1225 18 (1.5) 1 19 (1.6) 1 31 (2.5) 1
Other 124 0 -- 1 (0.8) -- 1 (0.8) --
Unknown 35 0 -- 0 -- 0 --
Education        
<High School 437 15 (3.4) 1.8 (0.8-3.9) 15 (3.4) 2.2 (1.0-4.8) 24 (5.5) 1.9 (1.0-3.5)
≥High School 1155 15 (1.3) 1 13 (1.1) 1 24 (2.1) 1
Unknown 354 2 (0.6) -- 0 -- 2 (0.6) --
IDU        
Yes 231 13 (5.6) 3.3 (1.5-7.2) 7 (3.0) 1.4 (0.5-3.4) 17 (7.4) 2.5 (1.3-4.8)
No 1715 19 (1.1) 1 21 (1.2) 1 33 (1.9) 1
Smoker*        
Yes 1042 28 (2.7) 4.9 (1.6-14.7) 26 (2.4) 13.8 (3.1-60.9) 44 (4.2) 6.2 (2.5-15.3)
No 902 4 (0.4) 1 2 (0.2) 1 6 (0.7) 1
Alcohol abuse†        
Yes 266 7 (2.6) 1.4 (0.6-3.5) 7 (2.6) 1.6 (0.6-4.0) 11 (4.1) 1.4 (0.7-2.9)
No 1680 25 (1.5) 1 21 (1.3) 1 39 (2.3)  
Nadir CD4/μL        
≤200 875 27 (3.1) 5.1 (0.7-38.3) 22 (2.5) 1.5 (0.4-5.3) 41 (4.7) 2.8 (0.8-9.2)
201-500 836 4 (0.5) 1.0 (0.1-8.6) 3 (0.4) 0.2 (0.0-1.2) 6 (0.7) 0.5 (0.1-2.0)
>500 179 1 (0.6) 1 3 (1.7) 1 3 (1.7) 1
Not Available 56 0 -- 0 -- 0 --
Any co-trimoxazole use        
Yes 656 21 (3.2) 1.4 (0.6-3.4) 18 (2.7) 1.8 (0.7-4.8) 33 (5.0) 1.7 (0.8-3.5)
No 1290 11 (0.9) 1 10 (0.8) 1 17 (1.3) 1
PPV-23 frequency        
Never 429 9 (2.1) 1.7 (0.7-4.5) 2 (0.5) 0.3 (0.1-1.4) 10 (2.3) 1.0 (0.5-2.4)
< once per 5 years 472 12 (2.5) 2.3 (1.0-5.4) 12 (2.5) 1.8 (0.8-4.1) 20 (4.2) 2.1 (1.1-4.1)
≥ once per 5 years 1045 11 (1.1) 1 14 (1.3) 1 20 (1.9) 1
History of pulmonary MAC or PCP        
Yes 243 8 (3.3) 1.5 (0.6-3.6) 6 (2.5) 1.2 (0.5-3.2) 11 (4.5) 1.2 (0.6-2.6)
No 1703 24 (1.4) 1 22 (1.3) 1 39 (2.3) 1
History of asthma        
Yes 178 5 (2.8) 1.4 (0.5-4.0) 5 (2.8) 1.7 (0.6-4.8) 8 (4.5) 1.5 (0.7-3.5)
No 1768 27 (1.5) 1 23 (1.3) 1 42 (2.4) 1
History of COPD        
Yes 60 4 (6.7) 1.3 (0.4-4.3) 6 (10.0) 3.8 (1.3-11.0) 9 (15.0) 2.7 (1.1-6.4)
No 1886 28 (1.5) 1 22 (1.2) 1 41 (2.2) 1
History of active TB        
Yes 74 2 (2.7) 1.5 (0.3-6.8) 1 (1.4) 0.9 (0.1-7.0) 3 (4.1) 1.5 (0.4-5.3)
No 1872 30 (1.6) 1 27 (1.4) 1 47 (2.5) 1
Hepatitis C        
Infected 448 22 (4.9) 5.0 (2.0-12.1) 16 (3.6) 3.1 (1.3-7.7) 31 (6.9) 3.9 (1.9-7.9)
Not Infected 1498 10 (0.7) 1 12 (0.8) 1 19 (1.3) 1
  1. * Self-reported smoking for greater than one month
  2. † >9 drinks/week for females, >14 drinks/week for males
  3. AOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, Confidence Interval; IDU, injection drug use; PPV-23, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; MAC, Mycobacterium avium complex; PCP, Pneumocystis Jirovecii pneumonia; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; TB, tuberculosis
  4. Variables are adjusted with logistic regression for gender, age group (≤30, 31-45, 46-60, or ≥61), a smoking history (if >1 month), IDU, and nadir CD4 cell count (≤200, 201-500, or >500/μL)