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Table 4 Risk factors for mortality in adults lost to follow-up that were successfully traced. Odds ratios are derived from logistic regression; P-values using likelihood ratio tests. (N = 486)

From: Outcomes and associated risk factors of patients traced after being lost to follow-up from antiretroviral treatment in Lilongwe, Malawi

Parameter % Died (95% CI#) Adjusted OR (95% CI) P
Gender    0.45
   Female 40.2 (34.1-46.4) 0.85 (0.56-1.29)  
   Male 42.7 (36.2-49.4) 1  
Age group    0.64
   15-29 42.3 (31.2-54.0) 1  
   30-39 41.0 (34.2-47.9) 0.99 (0.56-1.77)  
   40-49 38.0 (30.2-46.3) 1.07 (0.57-1.98)  
   ≥ 50 52.1 (37.2-66.7) 1.57 (0.70-3.50)  
Reason start ART    0.091
   Low CD4 count 28.8 (17.1-43.1) 1  
   WHO stage 3 39.3 (34.6-45.5) 1.28 (0.63-2.58)  
   WHO stage 4 56.2 (45.3-66.7) 1.99 (0.88- 4.52)  
   Other/unknown 28.4 (10.3-55.9) 0.55 (0.15-2.03)  
Time of last visit *    < 0.0001
   No follow-up 64.6 (53.0-75.0) 1  
   Months 1 to 6 50.0 (43.4-56.6) 0.55 (0.31-0.96)  
   Months 7 to 12 16.7 (8.29-28.5) 0.073 (0.030-0.18)  
   Months 13 or later 19.8 (12.9-28.5) 0.058 (0.024-0.14)  
Telephone contact    0.005
   None 39.0 (32.7-45.5) 1  
   Available 43.6 (37.4-50.0) 1.79 (1.19-2.71)  
Treatment period    0.022
   Paying 30.5 (23.7-37.9) 2.28 (1.10-4.72)  
   Free ART 47.4 (41.8-53.1) 1  
  1. # binomial exact 95% confidence interval
  2. *Follow up time from start of ART until last patient visit
  3. Adjusted odds ratio for treatment period is reversed from the crude odds ratio (crude OR = 0.49), due to confounding by time of last visit (for detail, see Additional file 1).