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Table 2 Clinical characteristics among cases and controls.

From: Factors associated with paradoxical immune response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected patients: a case control study

Clinical characteristics Cases (n = 39a)
n (%)
Controls
(n = 160a)
n (%)
Bivariate analyses
    p-valuee OR CI 95%
HIV transmission by intravenous drug use    1.00 0.88 0.28-2.7
Yes 4 (10.2) 18 (11.5)    
No 35 (89.8) 139 (86.6)    
AIDS defining illness before HAART    0.04b 2.34 1.0-5.3
Yes 11 (28.2) 23 (14.4)    
No 28 (71.8) 137 (85.6)    
AIDS defined by Rio de Janeiro/Caracas criteria    0.53 1.38 0.49-3.85
Yes 5 (12.8) 27 (16.8)    
No 34 (87.2) 133 (83.1)    
AIDS defined by CDC adapted criteria    0.40 1.52 0.56-4.17
Yes 33 (84.6) 143 (89.3)    
No 6 (15.4) 17 (10.6)    
Comorbidities in the previous year    0.43 0.75 0.36-1.54
Yes 24 (61.5) 109 (68.1)    
No 15 (38.4) 51 (31.9)    
Irregular use of HAART in the previous year    0.07c 2.22 0.9-5.3
Yes 9 (23.1) 19 (11.9)    
No 30 (76.4) 141 (88.1)    
Concomitant medication in the previous year for more than 30 consecutive days    0.00b 0.29 0.1-0.6
Yes 30 (76.9) 79 (49.3)    
No 9 (23.1) 81 (50.7)    
Year of HIV diagnosis    0.32 1.99 0.64-6.11
Before 1996 5 (12.8) 11 (6.9)    
After 1996 34 (87.2) 149 (93.1)    
Year of AIDS diagnosis    0.09c 8.59 0.75-97.3
Before 1996 2 (5.1) 1 (0.6)    
After 1996 37 (94.8) 159 (99.4)    
Time from HIV diagnosis until first HAART (months)d 39.6 ± 52.2 12.8 ± 26.9 0.57   
  Median: 19.5 (IQR: 1.7-63) Median: 5.5 (IQR: 2.2-10.7)    
Total time in use of HAART (months)d 36.1 ± 39,7 62.0 ± 32,5 0.00b   
  Median: 17 (IQR: 13.7-53.5) Median: 60 (IQR: 33.2-96)    
Time in use of last HAART regimen (months)d 19.2 ± 18.3 44.2 ± 28.6 0.00b   
  Median: 15 (IQR: 12.2-15.2) Median: 37 (IQR: 19.2-70.2)    
  1. n, number; OR, odds ratio; CI 95%, confidence interval of 95%; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  2. a different totals are due to missing data.
  3. b p-value < 0,050.
  4. c p-value < 0,1; variables that could be included in multivariate analysis.
  5. d Continuous data are represented by mean ± standard deviation and by median with interquartile range (IQR).
  6. e Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for comparison of categorical variables between the two groups, as more appropriate. For continuous variables, "Student's" T test was used for comparison of normal distributions between the two groups. For non-normal distributions, it was used the Mann-Whitney test.