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Table 5 Overall performance of indicators of meningitis among neonates and young infants in the validation period

From: Clinical indicators of bacterial meningitis among neonates and young infants in rural Kenya

Indicators Number with indicator Number with meningitis Sensitivity % Specificity % PPV % NPV % N.N.LP* 95% CI
Bulging fontanel 24 11 17.5 (9.5 to 25.4) 99.1 (98.7 to 99.5) 45.8 (25.0 to 67.0) 96.5 (96.2 to 96.8) 2 1 to 5
Convulsions or any of the above 128 31 49.2(34.9 to 66.7) 93.3(92.7 to 94.1) 24.2 (17.2 to 32.8) 97.7 (97.0 to 98.5) 5 3 to 7
Axillary temp ≥ 39°C or any of the above 187 34 54.0(38.1 to 73.0) 89.4 (88.8 to 90.3) 18.2(12.8 to 24.6) 97.8(97.1 to 98.7) 7 5 to 11
Agitation/irritability or any of the above 205 35 55.7(39.7 to 74.6) 88.3(87.6 to 89.1) 17.1(12.2 to 22.9) 97.9(97.1 to 98.7) 7 5 to 11
History of fever or any of the above 738 49 77.8(58.7 to 93.7) 52.5 (51.2 to 53.1) 6.6 (5.0 to 8.0) 98.2 (96.6 to 99.5) 21 15 to 35
One or more of the WHO suggested signs 636 44 69.8 (50.8 to 92.1) 59.1(58.3 to 60.1) 6.9 (5.0 to 9.1) 97.8 (96.5 to 99.4) 28 18 to 61
One or more of the WHO suggested signs plus history of fever 1,113 55 87.3(65.0 to 100) 27 (26.0 to 27.5) 4.9 (3.7 to 5.7) 98 (94.5 to 100) 42 24 to 154
All admissions 1,512 63 100 0 - - - -
  1. N.N.LP* Number of lumbar punctures needed to identify one case of Meningitis