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Table 1 Demographic, maternal and infant characteristics of HIV-infected women giving birth, by history of injection drug use and surveillance year, St. Petersburg, Russia, 2004−2008, enhanced perinatal HIV surveillance.

From: Five-year trends in epidemiology and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, St. Petersburg, Russia: results from perinatal HIV surveillance

  No history of injection drug use History of injection drug use
  2004
N = 2091
% (n)
2005
N = 2331
% (n)
2006
N = 2461
% (n)
2007
N = 2691
% (n)
2008
N = 2641
% (n)
P-value2 2004
N = 3451
% (n)
2005
N = 3041
% (n)
2006
N = 2101
% (n)
2007
N = 2221
% (n)
2008
N = 1831
% (n)
P-value2
Maternal demographic characteristics and reproductive history       
Age             .0007
   <21 years 34.0 (71) 27.2 (63) 20.7 (51) 13.8 (37) 9.5 (25) <.0001 13.0 (45) 11.5 (35) 6.2 (13) 6.8 (15) 6.0 (11)  
   21-30 years 63.2 (132) 66.4 (154) 69.1 (170) 75.1 (202) 73.1 (193) 0.0026 84.1 (290) 80.3 (244) 84.8 (178) 82.0 (182) 80.9 (148) 0.5529
   >30 years 2.9 (6) 6.5 (15) 10.2 (25) 11.2 (30) 17.4 (46) <.0001 2.9 (10) 8.2 (25) 9.1 (19) 11.3 (25) 13.1 (24) <.0001
Married/Nonmarital union 3 85.2 (178) 84.6 (197) 83.7 (206) 80.6 (214) 82.8 (212) 0.2695 77.1 (266) 66.4 (202) 60.0 (126) 65.8 (144) 56.9 (103) <.0001
City resident 62.2 (130) 68.2 (159) 64.5 (158) 64.3 (173) 72.0 (190) 0.1075 76.5 (264) 77.0 (234) 82.8 (173) 76.1 (169) 76.4 (139) 0.9424
Previous livebirth 20.6 (43) 26.3 (61) 26.4 (65) 30.9 (83) 37.9 (100) <.0001 26.7 (92) 42.8 (130) 43.3 (91) 42.8 (95) 41.5 (76) 0.0003
Perinatal characteristics       
Unintended pregnancy 52.2 (109) 34.2 (79) 25.4 (62) 27.2 (67) 30.2 (70) <.0001 65.8 (225) 63.8 (192) 55.1 (109) 52.2 (105) 46.0 (63) <.0001
Start of prenatal care             
≤28 weeks 77.5 (162) 82.8 (193) 85.4 (210) 84.8 (228) 83.7 (221) 0.0826 60.9 (210) 51.3 (156) 55.7 (117) 66.2 (147) 66.7 (122) 0.0214
>28 weeks 4.8 (10) 3.9 (9) 4.9 (12) 2.6 (7) 4.2 (11) 0.5403 6.4 (22) 6.3 (19) 4.3 (9) 3.2 (7) 3.8 (7) 0.0508
None 17.7 (37) 13.3 (31) 9.8 (24) 12.6 (34) 12.1 (32) 0.1136 32.8 (113) 42.4 (129) 40.0 (84) 30.6 (68) 29.5 (54) 0.1428
Injection drug use during pregnancy N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 51.6 (178) 59.5 (181) 61.9 (130) 56.8 (126) 62.3 (114) 0.0387
Preterm delivery 10.7 (22) 15.7 (36) 14.4 (35) 15.2 (40) 19.7 (51) 0.0199 31.8 (108) 36.0 (108) 34.8 (72) 31.7 (70) 38.1 (69) 0.4036
Mode of delivery             
Elective cesarean delivery 5.3 (11) 7.4 (17) 7.4 (18) 8.0 (21) 7.7 (20) 0.3419 2.3 (8) 4.0 (12) 3.9 (8) 4.5 (10) 5.5 (10) 0.0684
Emergency cesarean delivery 9.7 (20) 9.6 (22) 12.4 (30) 13.4 (35) 15.4 (40) 0.0233 11.1 (38) 6.3 (19) 4.8 (10) 9.1 (20) 15.5 (28) 0.2114
Vaginal 85.0 (175) 83.0 (190) 80.3 (195) 78.6 (206) 76.8 (199) 0.0124 86.6 (296) 89.7 (271) 91.3 (189) 86.4 (191) 79.0 (143) 0.0347
Maternal clinical characteristics       
HIV Diagnosis at
Labor/Delivery
12.5 (26) 11.2 (26) 6.9 (17) 8.2 (22) 9.9 (26) 0.2089 18.6 (64) 26.0 (79) 22.4 (47) 21.2 (47) 18.6 (34) 0.8095
Hepatitis C 39.2 (82) 33.9 (79) 28.1 (69) 32.7 (88) 24.2 (64) 0.0013 89.3 (308) 90.5 (275) 96.2 (202) 88.7 (197) 88.0 (161) 0.7412
CD4 Test Performed 57.9 (121) 61.8 (144) 73.6 (181) 83.3 (224) 80.3 (212) <.0001 47.5 (164) 39.1 (119) 42.4 (89) 55.0 (122) 63.9 (117) <.0001
CD4 count             
≤200 0.8 (1) 2.8 (4) 2.8 (5) 3.1 (7) 2.8 (6) 0.3366 3.1 (5) 5.0 (6) 6.7 (6) 9.0 (11) 8.6 (10) 0.0200
201-350 14.1 (17) 9.7 (14) 9.4 (17) 10.3 (23) 9.0 (19) 0.2599 12.8 (21) 8.4 (10) 13.5 (12) 8.2 (10) 12.8 (15) 0.8713
>350 85.1 (103) 87.5 (126) 87.9 (159) 86.6 (194) 88.2 (187) 0.5740 84.2 (138) 86.6 (103) 79.8 (71) 82.8 (101) 78.6 (92) 0.1771
Viral Load Test Performed 10.0 (21) 18.1 (42) 33.7 (83) 54.7 (147) 75.4 (199) <.0001 7.5 (26) 7.9 (24) 20.5 (43) 32.4 (72) 57.9 (106) <.0001
Viral load             
>10,000 42.9 (9) 23.8 (10) 22.9 (19) 18.4 (27) 8.5 (17) <.0001 42.3 (11) 54.2 (13) 23.3 (10) 22.2 (16) 12.3 (13) <.0001
1,001-10,000 38.1 (8) 42.9 (18) 36.1 (30) 26.5 (39) 10.1 (20) <.0001 34.6 (9) 29.2 (7) 32.6 (14) 34.7 (25) 16.7 (18) 0.0362
≤1,000 19.1 (4) 33.3 (14) 41.0 (34) 55.1 (81) 81.4 (162) <.0001 23.1 (6) 16.7 (4) 44.2 (19) 43.1 (31) 70.8 (75) <.0001
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission and infant abandonment       
Start of prenatal antiretroviral therapy             
≤28 weeks 44.9 (92) 56.1 (129) 67.1 (161) 72.6 (188) 72.3 (185) <.0001 44.4 (152) 35.9 (107) 40.3 (81) 50.7 (109) 54.2 (96) 0.0032
>28 weeks 34.2 (70) 24.4 (56) 18.8 (45) 10.8 (28) 9.8 (25) <.0001 19.0 (65) 17.5 (52) 12.4 (25) 7.9 (17) 7.9 (14) <.0001
None 21.0 (43) 19.6 (45) 14.2 (34) 16.6 (43) 18.0 (46) 0.2958 36.6 (125) 46.6 (139) 47.3 (95) 41.4 (89) 37.9 (67) 0.7900
Type of antiretroviral prophylaxis             
Full course dual/triple ARV prophylaxis4 13.9 (29) 15.0 (35) 18.7 (46) 55.8 (150) 59.1 (156) <.0001 9.3 (32) 5.3 (16) 17.6 (37) 41.9 (93) 43.7 (80) <.0001
Full course AZT prophylaxis5 61.2 (128) 59.7 (139) 64.2 (158) 22.7 (61) 20.5 (54) <.0001 50.4 (174) 45.1 (137) 33.3 (70) 16.2 (36) 16.9 (31) <.0001
Incomplete ARV prophylaxis6 24.9 (52) 25.3 (59) 17.1 (42) 21.6 (58) 20.5 (54) 0.1534 40.3 (139) 49.7 (151) 49.1 (103) 41.9 (93) 39.3 (72) 0.6076
Infant follow-up 75.5 (154/204) 69.6 (156/224) 71.7 (172/240) 66.5 (173/260) 41.8 (107/256) <.0001 84.7 (282/333) 78.9 (232/294) 82.8 (168/203) 66.1 (142/215) 32.8 (58/177) <.0001
Perinatal HIV transmission 7 3.9 (6/154) 5.8 (9/156) 3.5 (6/172) 2.9 (5/173) NA 0.4250 6.0 (17/282) 10.3 (24/232) 7.1 (12/168) 3.5 (5/142) NA 0.3851
Infant abandonment 5.5 (11/202) 3.2 (7/221) 3.0 (7/237) 4.3 (11/257) 3.5 (9/255) 0.5531 15.6 (51/326) 20.2 (55/273) 18.8 (33/176) 9.8 (20/205) 9.9 (17/172) 0.0090
  1. Petersburg, Russia, 2004-2008, enhanced perinatal HIV surveillance.
  2. 1N varies due to missing data.
  3. 2 P-value from Cochran-Armitage two-sided test.
  4. 3Compared with never married, widowed/divorced or unknown
  5. 4Dual (typically AZT + 3TC) or triple (typically AZT+3TC+LPV/r) ARV prenatally, intravenous AZT intranatally and AZT syrup neonatally
  6. 5AZT monotherapy prenatally, intravenous AZT intranatally and AZT syrup neonatally
  7. 6Single-doze NVP intranatally and/or NVP syrup (or incomplete course of AZT syrup) neonatally
  8. 7Delayed establishment of infant HIV status for many infants born in 2008 did not allow calculation of perinatal HIV transmission.