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Table 2 Concentrations of immunomodulatory factors in CVL of 21 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women from Los Angeles.

From: Immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant and non-pregnant women: A cross-sectional study

  Total Pregnant Non-pregnant p-value
Factor n detectable* Median (IQR) or geometric mean [pg/ml]# Median (IQR) or geometric mean [pg/ml]# Median (IQR) or geometric mean [pg/ml]#  
EGF 45 90.2 (75.1, 128.8) 89.0 102.6 0.33
Eotaxin 45 38.9 (28.5, 47.2) 36.1 40.7 0.43
FGF-2 34 11.1 (7.7, 21.5) 9.6 (< 3.2; 18.5) 8.9 (< 3.2; 17.8) 0.95
Flt-3 ligand 2 184.3 (14.9, 353.6) < 4.6 (< 4.6; < 4.6) < 4.6 (< 4.6; < 4.6) 0.97
Fractalkine 36 132.4(66.2, 293.6) 106.7(29.7; 171.7) 95.0 (11.2; 222.4) 0.92
G-CSF 45 383.4 (131.5, 741.6) 307.9 249.5 0.66
GM-CSF 36 77.8 (44.8, 137.3) 60.8 (18.8; 105.1) 64.6 (26.4; 123.5) 0.33
GRO 45 1,368.1 (756.0, 1,984.4) 1,175.8 (472.4; 2,328.0) 1,487.0 (1,109.0; 1,859.5) 0.49
IFNγ 42 2.0 (1.0, 3.8) 1.6 2.2 0.39
IFNα2 4 213.5 (93.1, 316.8) < 40.6 (< 40.6; 40. < 6) < 40.6 (< 40.6; < 40. 6) 0.98
IL-10 17 3.8 (1.1, 30.4) < 0.5 (< 0.5; 1.3) < 0.5 (< 0.5; 1.1) 0.90
IL-12p40 42 93.3 (58.2, 180.3) 105.7 86.2 0.48
IL-12p70 24 4.7 (2.5, 13.6) 0.9 (< 0.8; 3.5) 1.8 (< 0.8; 5.5) 0.49
IL-13 12 5.0 (1.9, 20.4) < 0.9 (< 0.9; < 0.9) < 0.9 (< 0.9; 1.7) 0.59
IL-15 18 4.0 (1.1, 5.6) < 0.7 (< 0.7; 1.1) < 0.7 (< 0.7; 4.0) 0.70
IL-17 45 3.0 (2.0, 4.2) 2.6 3.2 0.39
IL-1α 45 664.2 (278.9, 1,526.3) 812.8 502.5 0.15
IL-1β 28 30.4 (7.6, 49.8) 6.8 (< 0.7; 37.6) 6.9 (< 0.7; 40.5) 0.97
IL-1ra 45 > 10,000 (> 10,000, > 10,000) > 10,000 (> 10,000, > 10,000) > 10,000 (> 10,000, > 10,000) 0.37
IL-2 16 9.3 (1.6, 18.6) < 0.6 (< 0.6; 6.6) < 0.6 (< 0.6; 0.8) 0.15
IL-3 43 144.0 (69.8, 187.2) 155.5 (110.2; 187.2) 142.2 (58.5; 171.0) 0.65
IL-4 1 27.9 < 1.1 (< 1.1; < 1.1) < 1.1 (< 1.1; < 1.1) 0.37
IL-5 12 0.1 (0.1, 0.3) < 0.1 (< 0.1; < 0.1) < 0.1 (< 0.1; 0.1) 0.51
IL-6 38 42.2 (22.1, 94.9) 34.1 (5.6; 91.7) 29.0 (9.1; 65.9) 1.00
IL-7 15 28.8 (7.6, 39.4) < 4.0 (< 4.0; 17.1) < 4.0 (< 4.0; 6.7) 0.74
IL-8 45 405.8 (254.3, 958.6) 526.0 429.4 0.52
IL-9 41 25.9 (6.8, 49.0) 11.6 18.4 0.28
IP-10 45 112.6 (40.5, 263.7) 97.7 144.2 0.29
MCP-1 44 79.3 (22.2, 208.6) 41.1 111.4 0.03
MCP-3 3 14.2 (6.0, 20.2) < 3.7 (< 3.7; < 3.7) < 3.7 (< 3.7; < 3.7) 0.62
CCL22 42 63.2 (25.9, 131.9) 29.7 89.7 0.001
MIP-1α 44 62.0 (36.6, 86.0) 54.3 57.5 0.79
MIP-1β 35 55.2 (30.9, 108.9) 35.3 (9.5; 69.9) 46.8 (22.0; 91.5) 0.52
sCD40L 8 52.0 (24.5, 98.8) < 9.0 (< 9.0; < 9.0) < 9.0 (< 9.0; < 9.0) 0.90
sIL-2Ra 6 22.9 (15.0, 27.5) < 7.7 (< 7.7; < 7.7) < 7.7 (< 7.7; < 7.7) 0.60
TGFα 38 14.4 (5.9, 24.0) 9.5 (2.8; 26.5) 12.9 (3.8; 17.3) 0.72
TNFα 43 0.8 (0.5, 2.8) 0.8 (0.5; 2.4) 0.9 (0.5; 2.5) 0.84
TNFβ 13 7.1 (5.0, 13.6) < 3.4 (< 3.4; 4.3) < 3.4 (< 3.4; 4.7) 1.00
VEGF 43 56.2 (37.1, 102.6) 53.3 73.9 0.29
  1. IQR = interquartile range
  2. * number of samples with concentrations above the detection limit of the kit plus 2 standard deviations as provided by the manufacturer;
  3. # undetectable samples were imputed with a values just below the cut off, geometric means (a single number) are shown for variables normally distributed on the log scale, median and interquartile range are shown for non-normally distributed variables