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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of patients with invasive fungal sinusitis.

From: Invasive fungal sinusitis in patients with hematological malignancy: 15 years experience in a single university hospital in Taiwan

   Sinusitis   EORTC/MSG-NIAID IFS   
  Total (n = 110) IFS
(n = 46)
Non-IFS
(n = 64)
P Proven
(n = 25)
Probable (n = 5) Possible
(n = 16)
Non-IFS
(n = 64)
P
Age          
   < 60 years 86 34 52 0.48 19 5 10 52 0.25
   ≥ 60 years 24 12 12   6 0 6 12  
Gender          
   Male 66 27 39 0.85 15 3 9 39 0.99
   Female 44 19 25   10 2 7 25  
Hematological diagnosis     < 0.001      0.004
   Acute myeloid leukemia 56 33 23   16 4 13 23  
   Acute lymphoblastic leukemia 16 6 10   6 0 0 10  
   Lymphoma/myeloma 20 0 20   0 0 0 20  
   SAA/MDS 9 4 5   2 0 2 5  
   Others* 9 3 6   1 1 1 6  
Disease status     0.24      0.38
   Fresh diagnosis/remission 44 15 29   10 1 4 29  
   Refractory/relapsed 66 31 35   15 4 12 35  
Underlying diabetes mellitus     0.45      0.68
   Yes 7 4 3   2 1 1 3  
   No 103 42 61   22 5 15 61  
Chemotherapy intensity**     0.21      0.045
   Supportive treatment 34 11 23   3 4 4 23  
   Low dose chemotherapy 13 8 5   3 1 4 5  
   Standard dose chemotherapy 47 22 25   16 0 6 25  
   High dose chemotherapy 16 5 11   3 0 2 11  
Absolute neutrophil count     < 0.001      < 0.001
   < 500 mm3 < 10 days 55 7 48   2 1 4 48  
   < 500 mm3 ≥ 10 days 55 39 16   23 4 12 16  
Allogeneic transplantation     0.07      0.013
   Yes 24 6 18   2 3 1 18  
   No 86 40 46   23 2 15 46  
FESS debridement     0.001      < 0.001
   Yes 18 14 4   12 0 2 4  
   No 92 36 56   20 1 15 56  
Pre-emptive antifungal agent     < 0.001      < 0.001
Amphotericin B/ambisome   28 12   14 4 10 12  
Caspofungin   0 1   0 0 0 1  
Voriconazole   2 0   2 0 0 0  
Amphotericin B and caspofungin   4 0   3 0 1 0  
Amphotericin B and voriconazole   9 1   6 0 3 1  
Outcome (6 weeks survival)     0.001      0.001
   Death 27 19 8   7 3 9
1110
8  
   Alive 83 27 56   18 2 7 56  
  1. Abbreviation: IFS, invasive fungal sinusitis; SAA, severe aplastic anemia; MDS, myelodysplastic syndrome, FESS: functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
  2. *Others including: chronic myeloid leukemia (2), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (3), T-large granular lymphocyte leukemia (1), myelofibrosis (2), pure red cell aplasia status post transplantation (1)
  3. **High dose chemotherapy includes high dose cytarabine chemotherapy and conditioning therapy before myeloablative transplantation.