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Table 1 A summary of studies reporting bisexual behaviour among men who have sex with men in China

From: What is the potential for bisexual men in China to act as a bridge of HIV transmission to the female population? Behavioural evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Study Design Sexual orientation % (n/N) Condom usage % (n/N) Quality Score
First author, published year Study Period
(MM/YY)
Study location Age range
(Mean)
Recruitment method1 Sampling method 2 Sampling size Percentage of married MSM Had female partners in last six months Types of female partner3 Condom use
at last sex act
100% condom use in last six months  
East China  
Cai GF, 2008 [26] 06/2006-12/2006 Zhejiang 16-46 MSM Venues - 152 16.4% (25/152) 18.9% (28/148) Commercial - 33.3% (2/6) 4
Chen SC, 2007 [25] 07/2005-09/2005 Hangzhou 18-70 (28.0) MSM Venues, internet invitation Snowball 365 26.8% (97/362) 11.5% (42/365) Commercial 75.0% (3/4) 44.4% (4/9) 4
Choi KH, 2007 [39] 09/2004-06/2005 Shanghai 18-56 (28.0) MSM Venues Snowball 477 13.0% (62/477) 25.2% (120/477) - - - 6
Fu LJ, 2007 [23] 02/2006-12/2006 Zhejiang 19-41 (26.0) - Snowball 55 18.2% (10/55) 16.4% (9/55) - - - 3
Hu Q, 2006 [6] 08/2005 Jiangxi 15-60 (25.0) MSM Venues, internet advertisement Snowball 200 10.5% (21/200) - Overall 51.1% (48/94) - 4
Liao MZ, 2006 [27] 09/2005-11/2005 Shandong (Jinan, Yantai, Weihai) 18-73 (26.0) MSM Venues - 157 12.1% (19/157) 22.9% (36/157) Commercial 78.6% (11/14) 50.0% (7/14) 3
Ruan S, 2009 [16] 03/2007-07/2007 Jinan N/A Peer referral RDS 428 16.1% (69/428) Total: 33.6% (144/428)
[Married: 97.1% (67/69); Unmarried: 21.4% (77/359)]
- - - 5
  04/2008-06/2008 Jinan N/A Peer referral RDS 500 25.4% (127/500) Total: 32.6% (163/500) [Married: 78.0% (99/127); Unmarried: 17.2% (64/373)] - - -  
Wu J, 2008 [52] 10/2006-12/2006 Shanghai 18-54 (26.6) MSM Venues - 203 11.8% (24/203) 43.3% (88/203) Overall 47.7% (42/88) 34.1% (30/88) 4
Yang HT, 2006 [8] 05/2004-07/2004 Jiangsu 18-56 (28.0) MSM Venues, internet advertisement - 222 21.6% (48/222) 45.9% (102/222) Overall - 21.3% (23/108) 5
Zhu YW, 2007 [53] 03/2006-07/2006 Jinan 17-66 (25.4) CDC - 400 11.0% (44/400) 20.0% (80/400) Overall - 27.5% (22/80) 4
Northeast China             
Gu Y, 2004 [54] 03/2003-04/2003 Shenyang 16-49 MSM Venues - 342 - 36.3% (124/342) - - - 3
Liu LY, 2008 [55] 2006 Mudanjiang N/A (29.0) MSM Venues - 202 16.8% (34/202) - Overall 26.3% (20/76) 24.0% (12/50) 2
Wang J, 2008 [56] 08/2006-10/2006 Harbin N/A MSM Venues Convenience 401 - 22.4% (90/401) Overall 48.9% (44/90) - 3
Wang L, 2006 [57] 07/2004 Heilongjiang 17-66 MSM Venues - 397 12.6% (50/397) 24.7% (98/397) - - - 3
Zhang D, 2007 [58] 2002 Harbin 18-67 MSM Venues - 215 - 41.9% (90/215) - - - 5
  2004 Harbin 18-67 MSM Venues - 397 - 24.7% (98/397) - - -  
  2006 Harbin 18-67 MSM Venues - 647 - 25.0% (162/648) - - -  
Zhao H, 2009 [59] 01/2008-10/2008 Harbin 17-52 (25.0) VCT Clinic - 89 7.9% (7/89) 14.6% (13/89) Overall 53.8% (7/13) 30.8% (4/13) 2
North China
Guo W, 2008 [60] 10/2007-11/2007 Hebei 18-54 MSM Venues, internet chat rooms - 118 17.9% (19/106) 33.0% (35/106) - - - 3
Liu H, 2001 [61] 08/2000-10/2000 Beijing 16/72 (30.1) MSM Venues TLS 84 29.8% (25/84) 27.4% (23/84) - - - 3
Liu H, 2005 [10] 09/2001-01/2002 Beijing 18-69 (27.0) MSM Venues - 481 9.4% (45/481) 30.1% (145/481) Overall - 27.6% (40/145) 4
Liu H, 2007 [28] 08/2005-12/2008 Beijing 18-55 (27.2) MSM Venues - 416 11.5% (48/416) 31.7% (132/416) Commercial - 75.0% (12/16) 4
          Regular - 16.5% (16/97)  
          Non-commercial casual - 40.7% (22/54)  
Ma J, 2007 [62] 04/2006-10/2006 Tianjin N/A (25.2) Internet advertisement - 433 9.5% (41/433) 22.9% (99/433) - - - 5
Qu L, 2009 [63] 10/2008-12/2008 Inner Mongolia 18-63 (27.0) MSM Venues - 604 21.4% (129/604) 19.7% (119/604) Overall 28.6% (34/119) 19.3% (23/119) 2
Ruan Y, 2007 [30] 06/2005-11/2005 Beijing 17-54 (26.2) MSM Venues, peer referring, internet advertising Snowball, convenience 526 6.5% (34/526) 10.6% (56/526) Regular - 32.6% (14/43) 5
          Non-commercial casual - 34.8% (8/23)  
Wang CH, 2007 [12] 06/2003-10/2006 Chengde 15-28 MSM Venues Snowball 82 26.8% (22/82) 22.0% (18/82) - - - 1
Wang XL, 2009 [64] 11/2008-12/2008 Tangshan 19-53 MSM Venues - 114 50.0% (57/114) 50.9% (58/114)
-
- - 2
South Central China
Cai YM, 2009 [65] 10/2007-12/2007 Shenzhen 18-45 (27.0) MSM Venues RDS 351 21.9% (77/351) 28.5% (100/351) Overall - 36.8% (35/95) 3
He Q, 2005 [66] 04/2003-05/2003 Guangzhou 18-55 Peer referral, internet advertisement Snowball 121 - 21.5% (26/121) Overall - 26.9% (7/26) 4
Li N, 2007 [40] 2006 Henan 17-68 (28.3) CDC Continuous 187 31.6% (59/187) 36.9% (69/187) - - - 2
Liu H, 2009 [45] 2007 Shenzhen 18-45 MSM Venues RDS 293 24.9% (73/293) 25.9% (76/293) Overall - 31.1% (91/293) 5
Xing JM, 2007 [41] 10/2005-12/2005 Hunan 14-65 (29.8) MSM Venues, internet invitation - 372 27.3% (101/370) 29.0% (108/372) Overall - 32.7% (33/101) 3
Xu YF, 2008 [67] 08/2007-09/2007 Nanning 17-38 Internet advertisement, peer referral - 230 6.1% (14/230) 13.9% (32/230) - - - 2
Zhong F, 2009 [64] 05/2008-08/2008 Guangzhou ≥ 18 VCT Clinic RDS 379 21.9% (83/379) 28.2% (107/379) - - - 5
Northwest China
Miao ZF, 2009 [68] 04/2008-06/2008 Yinchuan 18-55 (27.7) MSM Venues, internet Snowball 312 24.4% (76/312) 37.5% (117/312) Overall 47.0% (55/117) - 2
Zhang M, 2009 [24] 05/2008-06/2008 Ürumqi 18-54 (27.4) - RDS 231 11.3% (26/231) 16.9% (39/231) - - - 1
Southwest China   
Feng L, 2009 [13] 07/2006-11/2006 Chongqing ≥ 18 MSM venues, community outreach, peer recruitment, web-based recruitment VBS, CABC 1000 18.2% (182/1000) 24.5% (245/1000) Overall 36.3% (89/245) 23.7% (58/245) 5
  07/2007-11/2007 Chongqing ≥ 18 MSM venues, community outreach, peer recruitment, web-based recruitment VBS, CABC 1044 22.7% (237/1044) 25.2% (263/1044) Overall 28.5% (75/263) 22.4% (59/263)  
Feng Y, 2010 [69] 03/2007-07/2007 Chengdu 16-44 MSM Venues Snowball 538 19.2% (96/500) 26.5% (136/513) - - - 6
Lau JT, 2009 [70] 2005 Kunming 15-75 MSM Venues, peer referral, internet recruitment VBS, snowball 387 20.4% (79/387) 36.4% (141/387) - - - 5
  2006 Kunming 15-75 MSM Venues, peer referral, internet recruitment VBS, snowball 316 11.4% (36/316) 30.1% (95/316) - - -  
Wang Y, 2008 [29] 12/2006-01/2007 Mianyang 16-57 (24.8) MSM Community RDS 201 7.5% (15/199) 12.9% (26/201) Overall 57.7% (15/26) 42.3% (11/26) 4
          Commercial 87.5% (7/8) 62.5% (5/8)  
Xiao Y, 2009 [71] 07/2006-09/2007 Chongqing 18-68 (27.7) MSM Venues, internet recruitment, community outreach, peer referral VBS, snowball 1692 17.1% (289/1692) 21.6% (364/1689) Overall 35.8% (130/363) 23.5% (85/362) 6
Zhou J, 2008 [72] 09/2006-12/2006 Guiyang 15-49 (24.0) Peer referral, internet recruitment - 406 5.2% (21/406) 7.4% (30/406) Overall 63.3% (19/30) - 5
Others             
Xiao Y, 2010 [73] 07/2006-09/2006 20 cities from 7 provinces (Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Chongqing) 15-68 (28.4) Internet advertisement, community outreach, peer referral, MSM Venues Snowball, VBS 4983 27.2% (1354/4983) 26.0% (1298/4983) Overall - 18.2% (231/1266) 6
Zhang BC, 2007 [74] 2004 6 cities
(Chongqing, Shenyang, Dalian, Qingdao, Nanjing, Xi'an)
15-72 (27.6) MSM Venues Snowball 1389 17.9% (249/1389) 42.4% (589/1389) Overall - 23.6% (139/589) 5
Zhang BC, 2008 [5] 2005-2006 9 cities (Harbin, Shenyang, Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Shanghai, Nanjing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Chengdu) 13-78 (29.1) MSM Venues Snowball 2250 24.7% (555/2246) Total: 52.1% (548/1051) [Married: 74.0% (344/465); Unmarried: 34.8% (204/586)] Overall - Total: 22.6% (190/839) [Married: 16.2% (65/401); Unmarried: 28.5% (125/438)] 5
  1. 1 MSM Venues: including gay bars, parks, sauna, bathroom, dance clubs; VCT Clinic: HIV voluntary counseling and testing clinic
  2. 2 RDS: Respondent-Driven Sampling; TLS: time-location sampling; VBS: Venue-based sampling, CABC: Cruising area-based convenience sampling
  3. 3 Overall partnerships represent the combination of regular, non-commercial casual and commercial female partnerships.