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Table 2 Microorganisms causing 200 episodes of IE among patients admitted to the Veterans General Hospital Kaohsiung, Taiwan over a five-year period (2004 to 2009)

From: Non-nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis in Taiwan: an underrecognized disease with poor outcome

Pathogens All Community-acquired IE Healthcare-associated IE
  N = 200 non-IVDU
n = 89
IVDU
n = 59
non-nosocomial
n = 30
nosocomial IE
n = 22
Staphylococci, n (%) 115 (57.5) 21 (23.6) 54 (91.5) 23 (76.7) 17 (77.3)
MSSA 65 15 42 8 0
MRSA 44 2 12 13 17
Coagulase-negative Staphylococci 6 4 0 2 0
Streptococci, n (%) 57 (28.5) 50 (56.2) 1 (1.7) 4 (13.3) 2 (9.1)
Viridans streptococci 38 35 0 3 0
Streptococcus bovis 9 8 0 1 0
Streptococcus agalactiae 5 3 1 0 1
Streptococcus pyogenes 1 1 0 0 0
Streptococcus pneumoniae 1 1 0 0 0
NVS 3 2 0 0 1
Enterococci, n (%) 9 (4.5) 5 (5.6) 0 (0) 3 (10.0) 1 (4.5)
Enterococcus faecalis 8 5 0 2 1
Enterococcus faecium 1 0 0 1 0
Gram negative bacilli, n (%) 3 (1.5) 0 (0) 2 (3.4) 0 (0) 1 (4.5)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 0 1 0 0
Chryseobacterium indologenes 1 0 0 0 1
Enterobacter cloacae 1 0 1 0 0
HACEK group, n (%) 2 (1.0) 2 (2.2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans 1 1 0 0 0
Haemophilus parainfluenzae 1 1 0 0 0
Others, n (%) 6 (3.0) 5 (5.6) 1 (1.7) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Rothia dentocariosa 2 1 1 0 0
Finegoldia magna 1 1 0 0 0
Lactococcus lactis 1 1 0 0 0
Lactococcus gravieae 1 1 0 0 0
Candida albicans 1 1 0 0 0
Culture negative, n (%) 8 (4.0) 6 (6.7) 1 (1.7) 0 (0) 1 (4.5)
  1. IE, infective endocarditis; IVDU, intravenous drug user; MSSA, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; NVS, nutritionally variant streptococci; HACEK, Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella species