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Table 6 Univariate analysis of prognostic factors for sequelae of all cases and confirmed BM cases

From: Prognostic factors related to sequelae in childhood bacterial meningitis: Data from a Greek meningitis registry

   All BM cases (n = 2382) Confirmed cases (n = 1297)
Prognostic Factors Sequelae/prognostic factor* (%) RR (95% CI) P-value Sequelae/prognostic factor* (%) RR (95% CI) P-value
Clinical features at presentation
   Fever ≥ 38°C Yes 33/1067 (3.1) 0.53 (0.19-1.46) 0.182 29/607 (4.8) 0.54 (0.17-1.69) 0.237
  No 4/69 (5.8)     3/34 (8.8)    
   Headache a Yes 16/796 (2.0) 0.90 (0.33-2.42) 0.501 12/386 (3.1) 1.19 (0.34-4.15) 0.536
  No 5/223 (2.2)     3/115 (2.6)    
   Vomiting Yes 25/1102 (2.3) 0.50 (0.30-0.82) 0.004 17/631 (2.7) 0.38 (0.21-0.68) < 0.001
  No 37/808 (4.6)     30/422 (7.1)    
   Meningeal Yes 22/1120 (2.0) 0.79 (0.32-1.92) 0.372 14/601 (2.3) 0.61 (0.23-1.68) 0.246
   signs b No 6/240 (2.5)     5/132 (3.8)    
   Haemorrhagic Yes 7/859 (0.8) 0.17 (0.08-0.36) < 0.001 6/505 (1.2) 0.17 (0.07-0.39) < 0.001
   rash No 66/1348 (4.9)     49/703 (7.0)    
   Seizures Yes 33/299 (11.0) 4.61 (2.88-7.38) < 0.001 25/182 (13.7) 4.03 (2.37-6.85) < 0.001
  No 32/1338 (2.4)     25/734 (3.4)    
   Bulging Yes 33/390 (8.5) 2.80 (1.52-5.15) < 0.001 26/256 (10.2) 2.32 (1.17-4.59) 0.012
   fontanelle c No 14/463 (3.0)     11/251 (4.4)    
   Grunting c Yes 30/422 (7.1) 2.14 (1.17-3.92) 0.011 25/282 (8.9) 2.00 (1.00-3.98) 0.043
  No 15/452 (3.3)     11/248 (4.4)    
   Poor feeding Yes 25/415 (6.0) 1.92 (1.16-3.17) 0.010 20/274 (7.3) 1.57 (0.89-2.76) 0.117
  No 34/1081 (3.1)     26/558 (4.7)    
   Shock Yes 8/166 (4.8) 1.37 (0.66-2.84) 0.256 6/104 (5.8) 1.17 (0.51-2.71) 0.710
  No 49/1392 (3.5)     38/772 (4.9)    
   Coma Yes 7/116 (6.0) 1.76 (0.81-3.79) 0.122 6/79 (7.6) 1.62 (0.71-3.73) 0.187
  No 49/1427 (3.4)     37/791 (4.7)    
Clinical features at day 3
   Fever Yes 29/465 (6.2) 2.65 (1.63-4.32) < 0.001 24/305 (7.9) 2.65 (1.50-4.68) < 0.001
  No 33/1404 (2.4)     21/707 (3.0)    
   Headache a Yes 4/119 (3.4) 3.08 (0.94-10.07) 0.073 3/64 (4.7) 5.5 (1.14-26.65) 0.049
  No 8/733 (1.1)     3/352 (0.9)    
   Vomiting Yes 2/22 (9.1) 3.13 (0.81-12.09) 0.139 2/15 (13.3) 3.63 (0.95-13.79) 0.110
  No 45/1548 (2.9)     31/843 (3.7)    
   Meningeal Yes 9/252 (3.6) 3.05 (1.25-7.41) 0.015 5/141 (3.5) 3.16 (0.93-10.77) 0.066
   signs b No 10/853 (1.2)     5/446 (1.1)    
   Haemorrhagic Yes 1/264 (0.4) 0.11 (0.02-0.79) 0.002 1/152 (0.7) 0.15 (0.02-1.06) 0.025
   rash No 42/1209 (3.5)     30/666 (4.5)    
   Seizures Yes 23/71 (32.4) 12.75 (7.89-20.59) < 0.001 17/49 (34.7) 10.51 (6.03-18.33) < 0.001
  No 32/1259 (2.5)     23/697 (3.3)    
   Bulging Yes 19/109 (17.4) 4.77 (2.67-8.51) < 0.001 13/78 (16.7) 2.86 (1.49-5.49) 0.001
   fontanelle c No 22/602 (3.7)     20/343 (5.8)    
   Grunting c Yes 7/25 (28.0) 6.21 (3.03-12.72) < 0.001 5/21 (23.8) 3.75 (1.60-8.77) 0.012
  No 31/688 (4.5)     26/409 (6.4)    
   Poor feeding Yes 8/28 (28.6) 9.37 (4.80-18.27) < 0.001 7/24 (29.2) 7.26 (3.50-15.04) < 0.001
  No 36/1180 (3.1)     26/647 (4.0)    
   Shock Yes 0/9 (0.0) 2.91 (0.44-19.10) 0.300 0/6 (0.0) 3.22 (0.51-20.42) 0.278
  No 43/1250 (3.4)     31/699 (4.4)    
   Coma Yes 5/13 (38.5) 12.17 (5.73-25.86) < 0.001 5/11 (45.5) 11.6 (5.50-24.45) < 0.001
  No 39/1234 (3.2)     27/689 (3.9)    
  1. a Study population excludes children < 2 years old, b Study population excludes children < 1 year old, c study population excludes children ≥ 2 years old,
  2. * Prognostic factor population varies due to missing values
  3. Missing values ranged from 7.3% to 38.8%