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Table 4 Univariate analysis of CSF and peripheral blood as prognostic factors for sequelae in childhood bacterial meningitis

From: Prognostic factors related to sequelae in childhood bacterial meningitis: Data from a Greek meningitis registry

   All BM cases (n = 2382) Confirmed cases (n = 1297)
Prognostic factors Sequelae/Prognostic factor* (%) RR (95% CI) P-value Sequelae/Prognostic factor* (%) RR (95% CI) P-value
CSF fluid analysis at presentation
   Positive CSF culture Yes 41/904 (4.5) 2.18 (1.30-3.66) 0.002 41/901 (4.5) 1.41 (0.64-3.10) 0.387
  No 21/1009 (2.1)     7/217 (3.2)    
   Positive Gram stain Yes 41/732 (5.6) 2.86 (1.72-4.76) < 0.001 40/725 (5.5) 2.05 (1.01-4.18) 0.041
  No 22/1123 (2.0)     9/335 (2.7)    
   CSF WBC ≤ 100/μL Yes 8/341 (2.3) 0.67 (0.32-1.37) 0.172 5/175 (2.9) 0.59 (0.24-1.45) 0.237
  No 65/1843 (3.5)     50/1024 (4.9)    
   CSF WBC ≤ 1000/μL Yes 24/945 (2.5) 0.64 (0.40-1.04) 0.043 16/383 (4.2) 0.87 (0.49-1.54) 0.642
  No 49/1239 (4.0)     39/816 (4.8)    
   CSF Glu < 40 mg/dL Yes 57/949 (6.0) 5.53 (2.98-0.24) < 0.001 46/665 (6.9) 4.81 (2.19-10.57) < 0.001
  No 12/1104 (1.1)     7/487 (1.4)    
   CSF Protein > 100 mg/dL Yes 52/987 (5.3) 3.34 (1.95-5.74) < 0.001 43/646 (6.7) 3.31 (1.68-6.53) < 0.001
  No 17/1078 (1.6)     10/498 (2.0)    
   ≥ 65% neutrophils in CSF Yes 57/1534 (3.7) 1.75 (0.76-4.01) 0.119 44/911 (4.8) 1.43 (0.45-4.52) 0.383
  No 6/282 (2.1)     3/89 (3.4)    
Peripheral blood analysis at presentation
   Positive blood culture Yes 18/256 (7.0) 3.11 (1.76-5.52) < 0.001 18/251 (7.2) 2.72 (1.41-5.25) 0.002
  No 29/1284 (2.3)     16/607 (2.6)    
   Peripheral WBC < 5000/μL Yes 3/104 (2.9) 0.85 (0.27-2.66) 0.533 3/83 (3.6) 0.77 (0.24-2.41) 0.455
  No 68/2009 (3.4)     51/1084 (4.7)    
   Peripheral WBC ≥ 15000/μL Yes 26/921 (2.8) 0.75 (0.47-1.20) 0.139 18/505 (3.6) 0.66 (0.38-1.14) 0.131
  No 45/1192 (3.8)     36/662 (5.4)    
   Absolute blood neutrophil count < 1000/μL Yes 1/13 (7.7) 2.38 (0.36-5.92) 0.350 1/11 (9.1) 2.04 (0.31-13.49) 0.399
  No 64/1984 (3.2)     49/1100 (4.5)    
  1. * Study population varies due to missing values
  2. Missing values ranged from 8.3% to 35.3%