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Table 3 Studies of interventions to increase screening in both sexes, by sex (n = 5)

From: Efficacy of interventions to increase the uptake of chlamydia screening in primary care: a systematic review

Author surname, year Intervention type Sex Intervention phase Intervention group Control group Statistical findings reported** Crude RR (95% CI) calculated by reviewer**
     Patients (n) % screened Patients (n) % screened   
    During 4018 16.8% 9068 13.2%   
   F Roll out 5368 15.5% 12124 13.7% NR 1.3 (1.2-1.4)
Morgan[21] 2009 Incentive   Before 2676 13.9% 6077 13.0%   
    During 4190 4.2% 8524 2.1%   
   M Roll out 5588 3.4% 11333 2.1% p = 0.05A 2.0 (1.6-2.5)
    Before 2833 3.0% 5529 1.7%   
Merritt[20] 2007 Quality improvement program F Late-intervention -* 10.2%C -* -* NR 1.5B
    Before -* 6.7%C -* -*   
   M Late-intervention -* 6.3%C -* -* NR 1.4B
    Before -* 4.5%C -* -*   
   F During -* 146^ -* 138^ NR 1.1B, D
Armstrong[14] 2010 Doctor education   Before -* 53^ -* 113^   
   M During -* 16^ -* 10^ NR 1.6B, D
    Before -* 4^ -* 8^   
Bilardi[16] 2009 Patient education F During 2002 6.4% -* -* 1.0E 1.0 (0.8-1.2)
    Before 1548 6.3% -* -*   
   M During 995 3.0% -* -* 0.8E 1.1 (0.7-2.0)
    Before 752 2.7% -* -*   
Schafer[23] 2002, Quality improvement program F During 1092 43.8% 1299 15.6% p < 0.01F 2.8 (2.4-3.2)
Tebb[24] 2005    Before 80 5.0% 86 14.0%   
   M During 990 44.9% 1024 15.1% p < 0.01G 3.0 (2.5-3.5)
    Before 76 2.6% 61 7.0%   
  1. ** Higher odds ratio or relative risk means intervention leads to greater screening
  2. OR-odds ratio, RR-relative risk, * Information not reported, M = male F = female, NR = not reported
  3. ^Total tests
  4. A = Authors conducted a t-test for differences in the proportion of tests conducted in males and 16-24 year olds in the intervention practices compared to control practices
  5. B = Insufficient information to reviewers to calculate 95% CI
  6. C = Screening rates based on 4 of the six clinics in the intervention clinics only
  7. D = Reviewers compared total tests in intervention clinic to control clinic during intervention period only
  8. E = Author conducted a test for equality in proportions
  9. F = Authors assessed the statistical significance of the time by group effect using an F test
  10. G = Authors adjusted for differences in ethnicity between study groups at baseline