MoDC anti-inflammatory cytokine in response to successive challenge of influenza virus and pneumococcus. MoDCs were concurrently or successively challenged by both influenza virus and heat killed pneumococcus. (A) MoDCs were first infected with H1N1 at MOI 0.1 for 0 hr, 6 hr or 24 hr, and then treated with 5 × 106 CFU heat killed pneumococcus for another 24 hr to make up a total incubation time at harvest of 24 hr, 30 hr or 48 hr respectively. (B) MoDCs were first infected with H1N1 at MOI 0.1 for 6 hr, and then treated with 1 × 106, 5 × 106 or 10 × 106 CFU heat killed pneumococcus for another 24 hr, with a total incubation time at harvest was 30 hr. Data (n = 5-7) represented mean ± SD for six individual experiments. Please note that some groups of data were presented twice in different panels for easy interpretation. *p < 0.05 (ANOVA).