Skip to main content

Table 3 Association between antimicrobial use in the previous 180 days and community-associated C. difficile infection

From: Incidence of and risk factors for community-associated Clostridium difficile infection: A nested case-control study

  CA-CDI Cases Controls Unadjusted OR Adjusted OR
  (N = 304) (N = 3040) (95% CI) (95% CI)*
Antimicrobial Drug/Class     
Beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors 46 (15.13) 95 (3.12) 5.58 (3.79, 8.20) 5.10 (3.26, 8.00)
Cephalosporins 75 (24.67) 230 (7.57) 4.06 (3.02, 5.47) 3.11 (2.17, 4.45)
Clindamycin 35 (11.51) 26 (0.86) 15.65 (9.09, 26.95) 13.00 (7.03, 24.04)
Fluoroquinolones 67 (22.04) 94 (3.09) 8.33 (5.94, 11.67) 4.91 (3.28, 7.35)
Macrolides 61 (20.07) 300 (9.87) 2.27 (1.68, 3.07) 2.19 (1.54, 3.11)
Penicillins 50 (16.45) 291 (9.57) 1.86 (1.34, 2.58) 1.72 (1.17, 2.54)
Sulfonamides 16 (5.26) 52 (1.71) 3.16 (1.79, 5.60) 1.58 (0.79, 3.15)
Tetracyclines 11 (3.62) 78 (2.57) 1.43 (0.75, 2.71) 0.94 (0.43, 2.04)
Timing of Antimicrobial Use     
No Use 82 (26.97) 2120 (69.74) reference reference
Within 1-30 Days 141 (46.38) 304 (10.00) 12.06 (8.88, 16.36) 13.02 (9.37, 18.09)
Within 31-60 Days 36 (11.84) 148 (4.87) 6.25 (4.06, 9.63) 5.84 (3.68, 9.28)
Within 61-90 Days 15 (4.93) 151 (4.97) 2.50 (1.40, 4.47) 2.30 (1.24, 4.25)
Within 91-120 Days 17 (5.59) 144 (4.74) 2.84 (1.63, 4.93) 2.30 (1.27, 4.17)
Within 121-150 Days 9 (2.96) 97 (3.19) 2.30 (1.12, 4.73) 2.77 (1.29, 5.95)
Within 151-180 Days 4 (1.32) 76 (2.50) 1.39 (0.50, 3.91) 1.17 (0.40, 3.41)
Number of Antimicrobials [Mean (SD)] 1.26 (1.10) 0.39 (0.68) 2.72 (2.40, 3.09) 2.74 (2.38, 3.15)
  1. NOTE. Data are presented as the number (%) of patients, unless otherwise stated.
  2. * Adjusted for age, gender, history of hospitalization, Charlson Comorbidity Index, inflammatory bowel disease, and gastric acid suppressant use
  3. Antimicrobial classes were entered in a multivariable model as a series of indicator variables (i.e., ORs are adjusted for the use of other classes).