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Table 1 Summary of 14 brain biopsies from patients with encephalitis analysed in our laboratory using PAS staining, immunohistochemistry with polyclonal rabbit antibodies specifically directed against T. whipplei and specific PCR

From: Progressive dementia associated with ataxia or obesity in patients with Tropheryma whipplei encephalitis

    Brain biopsies
Patients Sex/Age Country of origin PAS staining T. whipplei immunohistochemistry T. whipplei PCR
False-positive PAS staining associated with negative immunohistochemistry
Excluded diagnosis of T. whipplei encephalitis
*1 F/67 Ireland Positive Negative Negative
*2 M/25 Canada Positive Negative Negative
*3 M/42 France Positive Negative Negative
*4 M/37 Belgium Positive Negative Negative
*5 NA/NA Japan Positive Negative Negative
*6 M/34 France Positive Negative Negative
*7 M/64 France Positive Negative Negative
*8 M/66 France Positive Negative Negative
Diagnosis of T. whipplei encephalitis not available due to lack of PCR 2
*9 M/73 Japan Positive Negative NA 1
*10 M/14 USA Positive Negative NA 1
*11 NA/NA South-Africa Positive Negative NA 1
*12 M/NA Canada Positive Negative NA 1
False-negative PAS staining and immunohistochemistry
*2Patient 1 in this study M/39 France Negative Negative Positive
*2Patient 5 in this study F/33 France Negative Negative Positive
  1. NA: Not available
  2. *: All samples from these patients were analysed in our facilities.
  3. 1: PCR assays were not available for these patients because no fresh specimens were sampled and the quality of the DNA extracted from the paraffin-embedded specimens was poor, not allowing a conclusive diagnosis.
  4. 2: Patients were seen and followed by one of the authors (DR) in consultation.