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Table 2 Antibiogram of implicated pathogens in the super-infections of the study patients with adult bacterial meningitis (n = 21)

From: Clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of nosocomial super-infection in adult bacterial meningitis

Case Pathogens ROC CAZ MAX MEP CIP TIG TMP-SMX AMP- SBM
1 ESBL-Escherichia coli R R R S   S   
2 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia      S   R  
       R   R  
3 Acinetobacter baumannii   I S S R    S
    S S R R    S
4 Enterobacter cloacae   S   S S    
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa   S S S S    
5 Enterobacter cloacae S S   S S    
6 Acinetobacter baumannii   S S S S    
    I S S S    
7 Acinetobacter spp I S S S S    S
8 Acinetobacter spp S S S S S    S
9 Pseudomonas aeruginosa   S S S S    
    R S S     
10 Acinetobacter baumannii   S S S S    
11A Serratia marcescens I R R S     
  Stenotrophomonas maltophilia      S   S  
11C Stenotrophomonas maltophilia      R   S  
12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa   S S S S    
    R S S R    
  ESBL-Proteus mirabilis R R S S R    
13 Pseudomonas putida   S S R S    
  Acinetobacter spp R R R I R S   I
14 Serratia marcescens S S S S S    
  Acinetobacter baumannii   R R R R S   R
15A Morganella morganii R S S S S    
  Proteus mirabilis R R R S R    
15B Glucose non-fermenting bacilli R R R R I    
16 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia      S   S  
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa   R R S S    
17 Acinetobacter lwoffii   S   S S    
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa   S   S S    
18A Escherichia coli   R S S     
18B Acinetobacter baumannii   R I S R    R
18D Stenotrophomonas maltophilia      S    
19 Escherichia coli S S S S     
  Enterobacter cloacae S S S S     R
21 Enterobacter aerogenes I I S S S    
   R R S S S    
  1. Abbreviations: ROC, ceftriaxone; CAZ, ceftazidime; MAX, cefepime; MEP, meropenem; CIP, ciprofloxacin; AMP-SBM, ampicillin-subactam; TIG, tigecycline; TMP-SMX, trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole; LEV, levofloxacin; ESBL, extended spectrum β-lactamase; R, resistant; I, intermediate; S, susceptible
  2. Note: ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was suspected by the disk-diffusion susceptibility test [10].
  3. Non-Cephalosporin-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were used to describe isolates that were non-susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefepime. Intermediate and resistant isolates were considered non-susceptible [11]. Multi-drugs resistant (MDR) GNB was used to describe isolates that were non-susceptible to all antibiotics routinely tested including amikacin, (ampicillin-sulbactam in A. baumannii), ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, imepenem, and meropenem [12, 13]. The antimicrobial susceptibilities TMP-SMX, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloaxcin of the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid were determined concomitantly by the broth dilution method as described in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards (CLSI) guidelines.