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Table 1 Utilization and adaptation of the original multiplex published by Pai and colleagues

From: Sequential multiplex PCR assay for determining capsular serotypes of colonizing S. pneumoniae

  Year Country Age Aim of the study Isolates Method No of samples Concordance * Nb serotypes/groups Ref
Plating           
  2006 USA All develop and validate the multiplex IPD (blood) multiplex PCR 421 100% 29 [23]
  2007 Mozambique < 15 years adapted to African epidemiology IPD (blood+CSF)/AOM multiplex PCR 153 91.50% 29 [21]
  2007 Brazil < 5 years adapted to Latin American epidemiology IPD (blood+CSF)/pleural fluid multiplex PCR 147 94.60% 30 [25]
  2010 Spain All adapted to European epidemiology IPD multiplex PCR 257 95.7% 29 [24]
No plating           
  2008 Italy 0-14 years PCR-based serotyping directly on clinical specimens IPD (blood+CSF)/pleural fluid RT-PCR + multiplex PCR 92 NA 31 [35]
  2009 Gambia All detect multiple carriage carriage multiplex PCR 279 NA 29 [29]
  2010 USA < 2 years detect multiple carriage+low density carriage Broth enrichment + RT-PCR + multiplex PCR 100 NA 40 [28]
  2008 Bangladesh ND PCR-based serotyping directly on clinical specimens meningitis (CSF+isolates) multiplex PCR on isolates and directly on CSF 358 NA 56 [26]
  2010 Burkina Faso and Togo All PCR-based serotyping directly on clinical specimens meningitis (CSF+isolates) multiplex PCR on isolates and directly on CSF 194 NA 29 [27]
  1. * between conventional and PCR-based serotyping. IPD Invasive Pneumococcal Disease; CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid; AOM Acute Otitis Media; ND Not Determined; NA Not applicable (Studies use PCR to yield additional results compared to bacterial isolation and conventional serotyping, no concordance can be calculate