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Table 1 Demographic information and laboratory findings in the 1737 cases with a microbiological diagnosis or markedly abnormal CSF.

From: Adult meningitis in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence: findings from 4961 suspected cases

  % *
n= 1737
Age (years) Sex (% Male) Neutrophils (×106/L) Lymphocytes (×106/L) Protein (g/dL) Glucose (mmol/L) Normal CSF %(n) HIV +ve
%(n)
CD4 count
(cells/μL)
Cryptococcal 30%
(514)
34
(29-40)
50%
(257)
0 (0-3) 18 (3-73) 0.97
(0.5-1.7)
2.1
(1.3-2.8)
16%
(81)
99%
(337/339)
39
(18-85)
Tuberculous 13%
(227)
31
(27-40)
50%
(116)
4
(0-25)
60
(16-157)
2.09
(1.2-3.8)
1.4
(0.8-2.3)
5% (12) 94%
(126/134)
126
(61-201)
Bacterial** 4%
(68)
33
(30-42)
34%
(23)
29 (5-420) 46 (14-106) 5.0***
(2.7-5.0)
0.3*** (0.3-0.4) 4%
(3)
97%
(29/30)
287
(155-467).
Neurosyphilis 1%
(22)
39
(26-44)
64%
(14)
0
(0-1)
6
(1-64)
0.61
(0.4-1.0)
3.2
(2.5-3.6)
36%
(8)
---------- ----------
Lymphocytic 31%
(539)
33
(27-41)
38%
(206)
0
(0-4)
49
(27-123)
1.3
(0.7-2.3)
2.6
(2.1-3.4)
---------- ---------- ----------
Mixed 7%
(114)
34
(28-44)
46%
(53)
30
(10-124)
36
(17-114)
1.4
(0.7-2.9)
2.3
(0.9-2.9)
---------- ---------- ----------
Pyogenic 4%
(75)
36
(27-42)
55%
(41)
103
(14-824)
3
(1.6-3.7)
0.84
(0.5-2.6)
3
(1.6-3.7)
----------- ---------- ----------
Normocellular**** 11%
(189)
35
(29-44)
49%
(93)
0
(0-0)
1
(0-3)
1.5
(1.1-2.6)
3.0
(2.1-3.8)
---------- ---------- ----------
  1. Definitions of lymphocytic, mixed, pyogenic and normo-cellular as defined in text.
  2. All results are medians plus inter-quartile range unless otherwise stated.
  3. *The denominator for the percentages expressed are the 1737 cases with markedly abnormal CSF cell counts, biochemistry and/or microbiological diagnoses. The cumulative percentage is over 100 as there were 11 mixed infections - 8 CM & TBM, 1 TBM & syphilis, 1 CM & syphilis, 1 CM and bacterial meningitis.
  4. ** 64 culture positive:Streptococcus pneumoniae 90% (57 of 64), Neisseria meningitides 3% (2 of 64), 1 × β-haemolytic group A Streptococcus, 1 × Enterobacter cloacii, 1 × Streptococcus viridans, 2 × Staphlococcus aureus. Four had gram stain only: 2 × gram negative diplococci, 2 × gram positive diplococci.
  5. ***Note the laboratory reported protein results up to 5.0 g/dL, and glucose results down to 0.3 mmol/L. Hence protein results of >5 g/dL and glucose results of <0.3 mmol/L were recorded as 5.0 and 0.3 respectively.
  6. ****Abnormal protein or glucose.
  7. Note CSF indices did not differ between initial and relapse episode.