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Table 3 Bivariable and multivariable factors associated with HPV DNA positivity amongst women in Estonia, 2006

From: Population-based type-specific prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in Estonia

    Bivariate analysis Multivariable analysis
  HPV +/Total % OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Characteristic         
Socio-demographic         
Age (years)
< = 20 23/52 44.2 1    1   
21-25 44/95 46.3 1.1 0.6-2.1   0.8 0.4-1.7  
26-30 23/75 30.7 0.6 0.3-1.2   0.4 0.2-1.0  
30+ 30/104 28.8 0.5 0.3-1.0 0.03 0.4 0.2-0.9 0.05
Ethnicity
Estonian 96/269 35.7 1      
Other 22/52 42.3 1.3 0.7-2.4 0.4    
Marital status
Married 23/81 28.4 1      
Co-habiting 56/143 39.2 1.6 0.9-2.9     
Never married 31/81 38.3 2.2 0.8-6.5     
Other 8/17 47.1 1.6 0.8-3.0 0.3    
Education (in years)
< = 9 years 8/19 42.1 1      
10-12 years 32/88 36.4 0.8 0.3-2.2     
13+ years 72/202 35.6 0.8 0.3-2.0 0.9    
Sexual behavior         
Ever had sexual intercourse
Yes 117/306 38.2 1      
No 1/16 6.3 0.1 0.01-0.8 0.03    
Age at the first intercourse
< = 18 y 95/217 43.8 1    1   
> 18 y 20/85 23.5 0.4 0.2-0.7 0.001 0.4 0.2-0.8 <0.01
Number of sexual partners in last 12 months
1 72/226 31.9 1    1   
2-5 39/67 58.2 3.0 1.7-5.2 < 0.001 2.5 1.4-4.5 < 0.01
> = 6         
Self-reported history of sexually transmitted infections
Yes 33/82 40.2 1      
No 83/233 35.6 0.8 0.5-1.4 0.5    
Health behaviour         
Current contraceptive use
Male condom 24/78 30.8 1      
Other (hormonal, intrauterine device) 92/226 40.7 1.5 0.9-2.7 0.1    
Visited gynecologist with in last 12 months
Yes 63/158 39.9 1      
No 57/168 33.9 0.8 0.5-1.2 0.3    
Any* cervical cancer screening with in last 12 months
Yes 55/129 42.6 1      
No 65/197 33.0 0.7 0.4-1.0 0.08    
  1. * Opportunistic or systematic cervical cancer screening