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Table 3 Combined multiple logistic regression model including socio-demographic and behavioral variables for association with seroprevalent HSV-2 and syphilis in women.

From: Population-based seroprevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis in Andhra Pradesh state of India

Factor N (% of Total) HSV-2*    Syphilis †   
   N (% HSV-2) Odds of having HSV-2 with univariate analysis (95% CI) Adjusted odds of having HSV-2 with multiple logistic regression (95% CI) N (% Syphilis) Odds of having syphilis with univariate analysis (95% CI) Adjusted odds of having syphilis with multiple logistic regression (95% CI)
Women (N = 6,382)       
Sociodemographics        
Age (years)        
   15-19 1,159 (18.2) 48 (4.1) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 6 (0.5) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
   20-24 1,162 (18.2) 62 (5.3) 1.30 (0.89-1.92) 0.91 (0.58-1.44) 14 (1.2) 2.34 (0.90-6.12) 1.55 (0.54-4.45)
   25-29 1,027 (16.1) 88 (8.6) 2.17 (1.51-3.12) 1.67 (1.07-2.61) § 9 (0.9) 1.70 (0.60-4.79) 0.85 (0.27-2.68)
   30-34 886 (13.9) 110 (12.4) 3.28(2.31-4.66) 2.51 (1.61-3.90) || 19 (2.1) 4.21 (1.67-10.59) 1.88 (0.65-5.44)
   35-39 864 (13.5) 118 (13.7) 3.66 (2.58-5.19) 3.13 (2.01-4.86) || 13 (1.5) 2.94 (1.11-7.75) 1.45 (0.49-4.33)
   40-44 757 (11.9) 99 (13.1) 3.48 (2.43-4.98) 2.77 (1.76-4.39) || 19 (2.5) 4.95 (1.97-12.45) 2.90 (1.01-8.36) §
   45-49 527 (8.3) 59 (11.2) 2.92 (1.96-4.34) 2.12 (1.29-3.51) § 6 (1.1) 2.21 (0.71-6.89) 1.39 (0.40-4.88)
Standard of Living Index§        
   0-16 1,705 (26.7) 172 (10.1) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 33 (1.9) 1.00 (ref)  
   17-22 1,603 (25.1) 154 (9.6) 0.95 (0.75-1.19) 0.87 (0.66-1.15) 25 (1.6) 0.80 (0.48-1.36)  
   23-29 1,522 (23.8) 144 (9.5) 0.93 (0.74-1.18) 0.93 (0.69-1.26) 16 (1.1) 0.54 (0.30-0.98)  
   30-54 1,552 (24.3) 114 (7.3) 0.71 (0.55-0.90) 0.61 (0.42-0.90) § 12 (0.8) 0.39 (0.20-0.77)  
Education        
   None 2737 (42.9) 296 (10.8) 1.00 (ref)   48 (1.8) 1.00 (ref)  
   Class 1-10 2825 (44.3) 241 (8.5) 0.77 (0.64-0.92)   35 (1.2) 0.70 (0.45-1.09)  
   Class 11-12 335 (5.2) 20 (6.0) 0.52 (0.33-0.84)   3 (0.9) 0.51 (0.16-1.63)  
   More than Class 12 484 (7.6) 27 (5.6) 0.52 (0.33-0.84)   0 (0.0) Model doesn't converge  
Occupation        
   Other than those below 5666 (88.8) 459 (8.1) 1.00 (ref)   73 (1.3) 1.00 (ref)  
   Field Related 92 (1.4) 15 (6.3) 2.21 (1.26-3.87)   4 (4.4) 3.53 (1.26-9.88)  
   Begging/Sex Work 19 (0.3) 5 (26.3) 4.05 (1.45-11.30)   1 (5.3) 4.32 (0.57-32.8)  
   Unskilled Labor 605 (9.5) 105 (17.4) 2.38 (1.89-3.0)   8 (1.4) 1.17 (0.58-2.36)  
Caste        
   Forward 2398 (37.6) 198 (8.3) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 25 (1.0) 1.00 (ref)  
   Backward 1572 (24.6) 164 (10.4) 1.29 (1.04-1.61) 1.03 (0.80-1.33) 31 (2.0) 1.91 (1.12-3.25)  
   Scheduled 1315 (20.6) 125 (9.5) 1.17 (0.92-1.48) 1.29 (0.98-1.71) 18 (1.4) 1.32 (0.72-2.42)  
   Scheduled Tribe 220 (3.4) 22 (10.0) 1.23 (0.78-1.96) 1.03 (0.61-1.73) 1 (0.5) 0.43 (0.06-3.21)  
   None 877 (13.7) 75 (8.6) 1.04 (0.79-1.37) 0.70 (0.51-0.96) § 11 (1.3) 1.21 (0.59-2.46)  
Place of Residence        
   Rural 3,178 (49.8) 167 (5.3) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 41 (1.3) 1.00 (ref)  
   Urban 3,204 (50.2) 417 (13.0) 2.70 (2.24-3.25) 3.62 (2.76-4.76) || 45 (1.4) 1.09 (0.71-1.67)  
Health and Hygiene        
History of Transfusion        
   No 5,873 (92.0) 517 (8.8) 1.00 (ref)   81 (1.4) 1.00 (ref)  
   Yes 507 (7.9) 67 (13.2) 1.28 (0.95-1.72)   5 (1.0) 0.71 (0.29-1.77)  
Toilet Facility at Home        
   Own Flush 1,506 (23.7) 146 (9.7) 1.00 (ref)   9 (0.6) 1.00 (ref)  
   Share Flush/Own Pit Toilet 1,982 (31.1) 236 (11.9) 1.26 (1.01-1.57)   33 (1.7) 0.66 (0.52-0.83)  
   Share Pit Toilet 363 (5.7) 32 (8.8) 0.90 (0.60-1.34)   4 (1.1) 1.85 (0.57-6.05)  
   None 2,512 (39.5) 166 (6.6) 0.66 (0.52-0.83)   39 (1.6) 2.62 (1.27-5.43)  
Chew Tobacco        
   Never 6,305 (98.9) 566 (9.0) 1.00 (ref)   83 (1.3) 1.00 (ref)  
   Ever 67 (1.1) 17 (25.4) 1.77 (0.94-3.33)   2 (3.0) 2.31 (0.56-9.58)  
Sexual Risk        
Lifetime Male Partners        
   0 759 (12.2) 30 (4.0) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 2 (0.3) 1.00 (ref)  
   1 4,909 (78.9) 452 (9.2) 2.47 (1.69-3.60) 1.57 (0.91-2.73) 62 (1.3) 4.82 (1.18-19.76)  
   >1 551 (8.9) 88 (15.6) 4.68 (3.04-7.20) 2.61 (1.39-4.87) § 18 (3.3) 13.23 (3.06-57.26)  
Condom Use        
   No sex in last 6 months 1449 (24.8) 143 (9.9) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 17 (1.2) 1.00 (ref)  
   Sometimes/Often Use Condoms 124 (1.0) 21 (16.9) 1.86 (1.13-3.07) 1.12 (0.60-2.11) 4 (3.2) 2.81 (0.93-8.48)  
   Never Use Condoms 4,653 (74.7) 406 (8.7) 0.87 (0.71-1.07) 0.69 (0.53-0.91) § 61 (1.3) 1.12 (0.65-1.92)  
HIV/STI serostatus        
HIV 1/2 111 (1.7) 66 (59.5) 16.29 (11.03-24.04) 14.07 (8.84-22.40) || 21 (18.9) 22.28 (13.06-38.01) 8.19 (4.29-15.65) ||
HSV-2 584 (9.2) -    44 (7.5) 11.17 (7.25-17.20) 6.33 (3.79-10.58) ||
Syphilis 86 (1.3) 44 (51.2) 11.17 (7.25-17.20) 6.66 (3.88-11.42) || -   
  1. *Variables included in final HSV-2 model: lifetime male partners, condom use, HIV 1/2 serostatus, syphilis serostatus, age, SLI, caste, place of residence.
  2. †Variables included in final syphilis model: HIV 1/2 serostatus, HSV-2 serostatus, age
  3. ‡ Data missing for women: 2 for transfusion, 19 for toilet facility, 10 for chew tobacco, 163 for lifetime male partners, 156 for condom use, and 1 for education Reflects number who responded to all items in table; the total for sub-categories may not add up to 12,617 due to some missing data.
  4. §p < 0.05 in final model
  5. || p < 0.001 in final model
  6. Based on living conditions and assets, which was adapted from an index used previously by the National Health and Family Life Survey in India.[14]