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Table 2 Characteristics and positivity rate of other HBV serological markers in HBsAg-negative HIV-seropositive patients in whom the occult HBV infection rate was investigated.

From: Occult Hepatitis B Virus infection in ART-Naive HIV-Infected Patients seen at a Tertiary Care Centre in North India

  n Anti-HBs and/or anti-HBc pos (%) Anti-HBc pos
(%)
Anti-HBs pos
(%)
Only Anti-HBc pos
(%)
Only Anti-HBs pos
(%)
No HBV marker detected
(%)
Overall 53 24 (45.3) 19 (35.8) 11 (20.7) 13 (24.5) 5 (9.4) 29 (54.7)
Sex        
Male 41 19 (46.3) 16 (39.0) 8 (19.5) 11 (26.8) 3 (7.3) 22 (53.6)
Female 12 5 (41.7) 3 (25) 3 (25) 2 (16.7) 2 (16.7) 7 (58.3)
Risk factors a        
Heterosexual 46 20 (43.5) 16 (34.8) 8 (17.4) 12 (26.1) 4 (8.7) 26 (56.6)
Transfusion 3 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 0 1 (33.3) 1 (33.3)
IVDU 2 2 (100) 2 (100) 1 (50) 1 (50) 0 0
CD4 cell counts        
≤ 200 35 15 (42.8) 12 (34.3) 4 (11.4) 11 (31.4) 3 (8.5) 20 (57.1)
201-499 12 7 (58.3) 5 (41.7) 6 (50) 1 (8.3) 2 (16.7) 5 (41.6)
≥ 500 6 2 (33.3) 2 (33.3) 1 (16.7) 1 (16.7) 0 4 (66.7)
ALT levels        
Normal 30 14 (46.6) 11 (36.6) 8 (26.6) 6 (20) 4 (13.3) 16 (53.3)
Raised b 23 10 (43.4) 8 (34.7) 3 (13.0) 7 (30.4) 1 (4.3) 13 (56.5)
Other co-infections        
HCV pos c 5 4 (80) 3 (60) 2 (40) 2 (40) 1 (20) 1 (20)
TB pos d 17 6 (35.3) 5 (29.4) 3 (17.6) 3 (17.6) 1 (5.9) 11 (64.7)
  1. Note: n, total no. tested; HCV, hepatitis C virus; TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; IVDU, injection drug use. Determined by Fisher's exact test for proportions
  2. a In 2 patients no risk factor could be ascertained.
  3. b Defined as serum ALT levels >40 IU/L
  4. c Determined by anti-HCV IgM antibodies
  5. d Diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on clinical suspicion, chest X-ray findings and sputum mycobacteriology